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Table 9 Supplementary information: educational and occupational interventions for adults with comorbid ADHD and ASD

From: Guidance for identification and treatment of individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder based upon expert consensus

Individualised strategy plan
• Guidance on course/occupational choices to determine the ‘best fit’ with the student’s aptitude and personal needs.
• Ensure proactive pastoral support is available from professionals with the skills and experience to facilitate communication.
• Provide opportunities for the student to learn about their own difficulties and strengths to facilitate the adoption of self-help strategies and reduce dependence on others or the risks of disengagement.
• Ensure the student knows how to gain additional support if difficulties arise with accommodation arrangements.
• Consideration of the supports necessary where cooperative/collaborative tasks may be set.
• Liaison between services where students have complex needs arising from health problems (e.g. adherence to treatment programmes, substance use, mental health difficulties).
Assistance to aid concentration and reduce anxiety
• Allow supervised breaks at certain intervals during examinations instead of extra time (see also advice in child and adolescent section).
• Environmental modifications to reduce sensory demands or to meet sensory needs (e.g. in terms of lighting and noise).
• Support during unstructured periods of the day and access to quiet areas in order to reduce social anxiety.
Personal assistance
• Use of an oral language modifier to explain or re-phrase language in an examination paper and clarify the meaning for the candidate (this is used by the Joint Council for Qualifications [109]).
• Recognition of the additional demand and struggle for students when making field trips, external excursions and/or activities that involve any significant changes in routine.
• Training in and access to assistive technologies (e.g. voice recognition).
• Access to support if difficulties arise with performance and/or interpersonal relationships.
Organisational assistance
• Explicit instructions and guidance provided in a visualised format (assignment plans, timetables, deadlines, changes in routine).
• Provide regular proactive follow-up and support to ensure students are coping academically, socially and emotionally.
• Arrange work-experience opportunities with a recommendation for mentoring and/or a peer ‘buddy support’ system that provides supportive monitoring and guidance.