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Table 1 Average (SD) or numbers (%) of the characteristics of the mother-child pairs included in this study (n = 245), and the girls (n = 129) and boys (n = 116) separately. The p value depicts the difference between girls and boys

From: Children’s microvascular traits and ambient air pollution exposure during pregnancy and early childhood: prospective evidence to elucidate the developmental origin of particle-induced disease

CharacteristicCombinedGirlsBoysp value
Mother
 Age at birth child, years29.9 (4.1)30.1 (4.1)29.7 (4.1)0.41
 Pre-pregnancy BMI, kg/m224.4 (4.6)24.4 (4.9)24.3 (4.3)0.78
 Smoking behavior during pregnancy   0.48
  Never smoked167 (68.2)90 (36.8)77 (31.4) 
  Stopped smoking before pregnancy46 (18.8)24 (9.8)22 (9.0) 
  Smoked during pregnancy32 (13.0)15 (6.1)17 (6.9) 
 Alcohol consumption during pregnancy   0.67
  Yes52 (21.2)26 (10.6)26 (10.6) 
  No193 (78.8)103 (42.1)90 (36.7) 
 Education level   0.59
  Low (no high school diploma)16 (6.5)7 (2.9)9 (3.7) 
  Middle (high school diploma)64 (26.1)34 (13.9)30 (12.2) 
  High (college degree or higher)165 (67.4)88 (35.9)77 (31.4) 
Child
 Ethnicity   0.26
  European230 (93.9)119 (48.6)111 (45.3) 
  Non-European15 (6.1)10 (4.1)5 (2.0) 
 Birth weight, g3446.6 (429.8)3413.3 (412.9)3483.5 (446.8)0.20
 Age at time of follow-up, years4.6 (0.4)4.6 (0.4)4.5 (0.4)0.75
 Height at time of follow-up, cm107.3 (4.9)107.9 (5.1)107.8 (4.6)0.81
 Weight at time of follow-up, kg18.7 (2.7)18.8 (2.7)18.7 (2.7)0.70
 BMI at time of follow-up, kg/m216.0 (1.4)16.1 (1.4)16.0 (1.4)0.68
 Season at follow-up   0.82
  Spring83 (33.9)46 (18.8)37 (15.1) 
  Summer48 (19.6)25 (10.2)23 (9.4) 
  Autumn42 (17.1)18 (7.3)24 (9.8) 
  Winter72 (29.4)40 (16.3)32 (13.1) 
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg97.6 (8.2)98.1 (8.0)97.0 (8.5)0.30
 Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg53.9 (6.9)54.5 (6.6)53.2 (7.1)0.13
 Mean arterial pressure, mmHg68.5 (6.0)69.1 (5.6)67.8 (6.3)0.10
 Exposure to passive smoking   0.43
  Not exposed170 (69.4)88 (35.9)82 (33.5) 
  Exposed via one parent46 (18.8)23 (9.4)23 (9.4) 
  Exposed via both parents29 (11.8)18 (7.3)11 (4.5) 
 CRAE, μm180.8 (14.2)182.5 (13.0)178.9 (15.3)0.05
 CRVE, μm251.0 (19.4)253.7 (18.1)247.9 (20.5)0.02
 TI0.889 (0.012)0.891 (0.012)0.887 (0.013)0.04
  1. Abbreviations: CRAE central retinal arteriolar equivalent, CRVE central retinal venular equivalent, TI tortuosity index, SD standard deviation