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Table 3 Associations between retinal microvascular characteristics and PM2.5 or NO2 exposure during pregnancy: results from secondary analyses with models combining entire pregnancy exposure with different postnatal exposure periods

From: Children’s microvascular traits and ambient air pollution exposure during pregnancy and early childhood: prospective evidence to elucidate the developmental origin of particle-induced disease

ModelCRAE, μmCRVE, μmTI
PM2.5
 Entire pregnancy + day of follow-up3.76 (0.76 to 6.75)*4.29 (0.24 to 8.33)*0.0022 (− 0.0003 to 0.0047)
 Entire pregnancy + day before follow-up3.75 (0.75 to 6.74)*4.32 (0.26 to 8.39)*0.0022 (− 0.0003 to 0.0048)
 Entire pregnancy + week before follow-up3.73 (0.71 to 6.74)*4.71 (0.68 to 8.74)*0.0024 (− 0.0002 to 0.0049)
 Entire pregnancy + entire childhood3.25 (0.13 to 6.37)*3.53 (− 0.69 to 7.74)0.0022 (− 0.0005 to 0.0048)
NO2
 Entire pregnancy + day of follow-up2.96 (0.05 to 5.87)*4.24 (0.32 to 8.16)*0.0027 (0.0002 to 0.0051)*
 Entire pregnancy + day before follow-up2.89 (− 0.01 to 5.79)*3.90 (− 0.01 to 7.81)*0.0027 (0.0002 to 0.0051)*
 Entire pregnancy + week before follow-up3.83 (0.74 to 6.91)*3.25 (− 0.90 to 7.40)0.0021 (− 0.0005 to 0.0047)
 Entire pregnancy + entire childhood1.68 (− 3.22 to 6.58)3.09 (− 3.51 to 9.70)0.0024 (− 0.0017 to 0.0065)
  1. Estimates are given as change (95% CI) per IQR increase in exposure to either PM2.5 or NO2 during the entire pregnancy. All models were adjusted for exposure to either PM2.5 or NO2 during the entire pregnancy, age (years), sex, ethnicity, mean arterial blood pressure and BMI of the child at the moment of the follow-up visit, the season in which the follow-up examination took place, birth weight (grams), maternal age at the birth of her child and pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, alcohol use of the mother during pregnancy, smoking habits of the mother before and during pregnancy, and the exposure of the child to passive smoking. The separate models were additionally adjusted for exposure during either the day of the follow-up visit, the day before the follow-up examination, the week preceding the follow-up visit, or the average childhood exposure from the day of birth until the day of the follow-up examination. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, CRAE central retinal arteriolar equivalent, CRVE central retinal venular equivalent, TI tortuosity index
  2. *p ≤ 0.05