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Table 2 Univariable and multivariable logistic regression on the risk of stillbirth

From: Pregnancy outcomes and risk of placental malaria after artemisinin-based and quinine-based treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in pregnancy: a WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis

Baseline characteristicProportion (%)UnivariableMultivariable (complete case)Multivariable (MI)
OR (95% CI)p valueaOR (95% CI)p valueaOR (95% CI)p value
Treatment
 AL19/1087 (2%)Reference Reference Reference 
 AAP1/81 (1%)0.61 (0.08–4.93)0.640.99 (0.13–7.67)0.990.82 (0.10–6.46)0.85
 AS2/193 (1%)0.56 (0.12–2.57)0.450.80 (0.18–3.61)0.770.67 (0.15–3.02)0.60
 ASAQ13/775 (2%)0.89 (0.42–1.88)0.760.96 (0.40–2.32)0.931.00 (0.47–2.10)0.99
 ASMQ23/965 (2%)1.20 (0.62–2.32)0.581.58 (0.76–3.25)0.221.38 (0.70–2.70)0.35
 ASSP4/154 (3%)1.43 (0.42–4.81)0.571.23 (0.34–4.49)0.751.35 (0.42–4.41)0.62
 DP19/837 (2%)1.09 (0.54–2.18)0.811.36 (0.65–2.85)0.411.22 (0.60–2.47)0.58
 Q2/184 (1%)0.51 (0.11–2.34)0.390.71 (0.16–3.25)0.660.51 (0.11–2.33)0.39
 QC1/58 (2%)0.81 (0.09–7.15)0.851.40 (0.18–11.01)0.751.12 (0.14–9.24)0.92
EGA at malaria episode
 4.0–13.90/38 (0%)No data     
 14.0–19.922/896 (2%)Reference     
 20.0–23.920/1065 (2%)0.72 (0.39–1.33)0.30    
 24.0–27.921/964 (2%)0.82 (0.45–1.51)0.53    
 28.0–36.919/1319 (1%)0.51 (0.27–0.95)0.04    
 ≥ 37.0 (weeks)2/51 (4%)1.63 (0.37–7.32)0.52    
Age group
 < 2027/1388 (2%)Reference     
 20–2527/1399 (2%)0.97 (0.56–1.66)0.91    
 25–3018/836 (2%)1.10 (0.60–2.02)0.76    
 30–356/419 (1%)0.73 (0.30–1.77)0.48    
 ≥ 35 (years)6/292 (2%)1.03 (0.42–2.54)0.95    
Pregnancy history
 G133/1519 (2%)Reference Reference Reference 
 G2 with no loss11/741 (1%)0.68 (0.34–1.35)0.270.52 (0.23–1.15)0.110.63 (0.31–1.26)0.19
 G ≥ 3 with no loss15/1165 (1%)0.60 (0.33–1.11)0.110.47 (0.23–0.98)0.040.51 (0.27–0.97)0.04
 G2 with 1 loss8/264 (3%)1.28 (0.57–2.84)0.551.12 (0.46–2.74)0.811.35 (0.60–3.01)0.47
 G ≥ 3 with 1 loss11/462 (2%)1.05 (0.53–2.11)0.890.60 (0.25–1.49)0.270.95 (0.46–1.93)0.88
 G ≥ 3 with ≥ 2 losses5/145 (3%)1.45 (0.55–3.81)0.450.98 (0.28–3.37)0.971.33 (0.49–3.64)0.58
Weight (kg)84/4334 (2%)1.01 (0.99–1.04)0.34    
Height (cm)73/3809 (2%)0.99 (0.95–1.02)0.42    
BMI (kg/m2)
 < 18.58/239 (3%)2.16 (1.01–4.62)0.048    
 18.5–24.949/3044 (2%)Reference     
 25.0–29.912/458 (3%)1.40 (0.71–2.77)0.33    
 ≥ 30.04/68 (6%)2.86 (0.93–8.80)0.07    
HIV infection
 Yes3/35 (9%)5.41 (1.57–18.65)0.0086.06 (1.69–21.68)0.0064.35 (1.15–16.52)0.03
 No61/3627 (2%)Reference Reference Reference 
Parasitaemia (log10/μL)84/4334 (2%)1.16 (0.90–1.51)0.26    
Fever > 37.5 °C
 Yes8/395 (2%)1.20 (0.56–2.56)0.64    
 No73/3897 (2%)Reference     
Haemoglobin (g/dL)84/4334 (2%)1.13 (0.97–1.32)0.121.14 (0.94–1.37)0.181.20 (1.02–1.41)0.03
Gametocytaemia
 Yes2/161 (1%)0.67 (0.17–2.75)0.58    
 No79/4110 (2%)Reference     
Mixed infection
 Yes0/32 (0%)No data     
 No84/4302 (2%)Reference     
Malaria transmission
 Low12/993 (1%)0.44 (0.21–0.90)0.03    
 Moderate57/2348 (2%)Reference     
 High15/993 (2%)0.61 (0.30–1.26)0.18    
  1. Intraclass correlation, < 0.01. AAP artesunate with atovaquone-proguanil, AL artemether-lumefantrine, aOR adjusted odds ratio, AS artesunate monotherapy, ASAQ artesunate-amodiaquine, ASMQ artesunate-mefloquine, ASSP artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, DP dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, EGA estimated gestational age, G gravidity, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, MI multiple imputation, OR odds ratio, Q quinine monotherapy, QC quinine with clindamycin