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Table 3 Univariable and multivariable logistic regression on the risk of moderate-to-late preterm birth

From: Pregnancy outcomes and risk of placental malaria after artemisinin-based and quinine-based treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in pregnancy: a WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis

Baseline characteristicProportion (%)UnivariableMultivariable (complete case)Multivariable (MI)
OR (95% CI)p valueaOR (95% CI)p valueaOR (95% CI)p value
Treatment
 AL156/1035 (15%)Reference Reference Reference 
 AAP4/76 (5%)0.51 (0.15–1.70)0.272.72 (0.50–14.75)0.250.69 (0.19–2.44)0.56
 AS15/174 (9%)1.41 (0.63–3.18)0.402.01 (0.74–5.47)0.171.49 (0.64–3.50)0.36
 ASAQ124/747 (17%)1.04 (0.79–1.38)0.761.03 (0.75–1.41)0.881.05 (0.79–1.39)0.75
 ASMQ128/926 (14%)1.10 (0.84–1.46)0.480.94 (0.68–1.30)0.711.07 (0.80–1.41)0.65
 ASSP22/147 (15%)1.78 (0.87–3.63)0.111.24 (0.50–3.09)0.641.83 (0.88–3.81)0.10
 DP151/804 (19%)1.28 (0.98–1.66)0.071.23 (0.93–1.64)0.151.22 (0.93–1.60)0.15
 Q15/171 (9%)1.17 (0.57–2.40)0.683.86 (0.92–16.19)0.071.67 (0.79–3.54)0.18
 QC4/51 (8%)1.03 (0.26–4.08)0.96No data 1.39 (0.34–5.67)0.65
EGA at malaria episode
 4.0–13.95/38 (13%)3.92 (1.42–10.87)0.0092.67 (0.73–9.80)0.143.92 (1.38–11.13)0.01
 14.0–19.978/863 (9%)Reference Reference Reference 
 20.0–23.9136/1023 (13%)1.69 (1.25–2.28)< 0.0011.63 (1.17–2.28)0.0041.71 (1.25–2.32)< 0.001
 24.0–27.9142/917 (15%)2.17 (1.60–2.94)< 0.0012.30 (1.64–3.24)< 0.0012.37 (1.74–3.23)< 0.001
 28.0–36.9 (weeks)258/1290 (20%)3.63 (2.72–4.85)< 0.0014.49 (3.23–6.25)< 0.0014.33 (3.21–5.84)< 0.001
Age group
 < 20284/1323 (21%)Reference Reference Reference 
 20–25154/1330 (12%)0.55 (0.44–0.68)< 0.0010.69 (0.51–0.93)0.020.67 (0.51–0.87)0.003
 25–30100/803 (12%)0.60 (0.47–0.78)< 0.0011.01 (0.67–1.54)0.960.82 (0.56–1.18)0.29
 30–3546/401 (11%)0.54 (0.38–0.76)< 0.0010.78 (0.47–1.31)0.340.72 (0.45–1.12)0.15
 ≥ 35 (years)35/274 (13%)0.75 (0.51–1.11)0.150.87 (0.47–1.62)0.670.99 (0.60–1.64)0.98
Pregnancy history
 G1284/1439 (20%)Reference Reference Reference 
 G2 with no loss81/704 (12%)0.56 (0.43–0.73)< 0.0010.68 (0.48–0.96)0.030.65 (0.48–0.89)0.007
 G ≥ 3 with no loss141/1128 (12%)0.60 (0.48–0.75)< 0.0010.59 (0.40–0.89)0.010.67 (0.47–0.96)0.03
 G2 with 1 loss41/251 (16%)0.85 (0.59–1.24)0.401.12 (0.75–1.68)0.580.95 (0.65–1.40)0.81
 G ≥ 3 with 1 loss51/435 (12%)0.60 (0.43–0.83)0.0020.69 (0.44–1.08)0.100.66 (0.44–0.99)0.046
 G ≥ 3 with ≥ 2 losses18/137 (13%)0.94 (0.55–1.58)0.801.20 (0.62–2.32)0.581.00 (0.56–1.79)1.00
Weight (kg)618/4130 (15%)0.98 (0.97–0.99)0.004    
Height (cm)579/3655 (16%)0.99 (0.97–1.00)0.050.98 (0.96–1.00)0.010.98 (0.96–0.99)0.01
BMI (kg/m2)579/3655 (16%)0.96 (0.93–1.00)0.030.95 (0.91–0.99)0.010.94 (0.90–0.97)< 0.001
HIV infection
 Yes4/31 (13%)1.57 (0.51–4.73)0.441.88 (0.35–10.15)0.461.22 (0.36–4.09)0.75
 No527/3462 (15%)Reference Reference Reference 
Parasitaemia (log10/μL)619/4131 (15%)1.11 (0.99–1.24)0.07    
Fever > 37.5 °C
 Yes45/375 (12%)1.09 (0.77–1.54)0.62    
 No563/3719 (15%)Reference     
Haemoglobin (g/dL)616/4107 (15%)0.94 (0.88–1.00)0.04    
Gametocytaemia
 Yes24/153 (16%)1.46 (0.92–2.32)0.11    
 No584/3922 (15%)Reference     
Mixed infection
 Yes2/29 (7%)1.04 (0.24–4.52)0.96    
 No617/4102 (15%)Reference     
Malaria transmission
 Low72/929 (8%)0.55 (0.33–0.94)0.030.24 (0.10–0.56)0.0010.42 (0.22–0.81)0.009
 Moderate397/2236 (18%)Reference Reference Reference 
 High150/966 (16%)0.93 (0.54–1.62)0.800.56 (0.28–1.09)0.090.86 (0.47–1.58)0.63
  1. Intraclass correlation, 0.07. AAP artesunate with atovaquone-proguanil, AL artemether-lumefantrine, aOR adjusted odds ratio, AS artesunate monotherapy, ASAQ artesunate-amodiaquine, ASMQ artesunate-mefloquine, ASSP artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, DP dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, EGA estimated gestational age, G gravidity, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, MI multiple imputation, OR odds ratio, Q quinine monotherapy, QC quinine with clindamycin