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Table 4 Univariable and multivariable logistic regression on the risk of small for gestational age

From: Pregnancy outcomes and risk of placental malaria after artemisinin-based and quinine-based treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in pregnancy: a WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis

Baseline characteristicProportion (%)UnivariableMultivariable (complete case)Multivariable (MI)
OR (95% CI)p valueaOR (95% CI)p valueaOR (95% CI)p value
Treatment
 AL241/973 (25%)Reference Reference Reference 
 AAP25/55 (45%)1.99 (0.89–4.45)0.090.69 (0.18–2.63)0.581.85 (0.72–4.75)0.20
 AS56/154 (36%)1.38 (0.83–2.29)0.221.30 (0.73–2.30)0.381.26 (0.74–2.16)0.40
 ASAQ164/700 (23%)1.02 (0.79–1.32)0.850.97 (0.71–1.32)0.851.05 (0.80–1.37)0.73
 ASMQ257/820 (31%)0.99 (0.78–1.26)0.961.01 (0.76–1.34)0.951.00 (0.78–1.28)0.99
 ASSP66/129 (51%)1.44 (0.85–2.44)0.171.74 (0.94–3.20)0.081.37 (0.79–2.36)0.27
 DP163/716 (23%)0.86 (0.67–1.12)0.260.91 (0.68–1.21)0.510.87 (0.67–1.14)0.31
 Q20/119 (17%)0.56 (0.31–1.04)0.070.22 (0.05–0.92)0.040.69 (0.32–1.52)0.36
 QC15/41 (37%)1.28 (0.51–3.18)0.60No data 1.11 (0.37–3.35)0.86
EGA at malaria episode
 4.0–13.910/31 (32%)0.70 (0.31–1.59)0.390.74 (0.30–1.83)0.510.62 (0.27–1.45)0.27
 14.0–19.9227/765 (30%)Reference Reference Reference 
 20.0–23.9246/914 (27%)0.81 (0.65–1.01)0.060.82 (0.63–1.06)0.140.80 (0.63–1.00)0.05
 24.0–27.9219/820 (27%)0.74 (0.59–0.94)0.010.83 (0.63–1.10)0.200.80 (0.63–1.01)0.07
 28.0–36.9289/1138 (25%)0.60 (0.48–0.75)< 0.0010.69 (0.53–0.90)0.0060.70 (0.55–0.87)0.002
 ≥ 37.0 (weeks)16/39 (41%)1.13 (0.56–2.27)0.740.59 (0.15–2.23)0.431.36 (0.66–2.84)0.41
Age group
 < 20379/1202 (32%)Reference     
 20–25332/1185 (28%)0.65 (0.54–0.79)< 0.001    
 25–30170/717 (24%)0.52 (0.42–0.66)< 0.001    
 30–3563/357 (18%)0.37 (0.27–0.50)< 0.001    
 ≥ 35 (years)63/246 (26%)0.55 (0.40–0.77)< 0.001    
Pregnancy history
 G1444/1316 (34%)Reference Reference Reference 
 G2 with no loss154/614 (25%)0.58 (0.47–0.73)< 0.0010.63 (0.49–0.83)< 0.0010.62 (0.49–0.78)< 0.001
 G ≥ 3 with no loss186/1011 (18%)0.40 (0.33–0.50)< 0.0010.48 (0.37–0.63)< 0.0010.48 (0.39–0.60)< 0.001
 G2 with 1 loss76/225 (34%)0.81 (0.59–1.11)0.190.75 (0.53–1.07)0.120.82 (0.59–1.12)0.21
 G ≥ 3 with 1 loss88/387 (23%)0.46 (0.35–0.61)< 0.0010.57 (0.42–0.79)< 0.0010.54 (0.41–0.72)< 0.001
 G ≥ 3 with ≥ 2 losses40/117 (34%)0.76 (0.50–1.15)0.190.79 (0.47–1.32)0.370.79 (0.51–1.21)0.27
Weight (kg)1007/3707 (27%)0.95 (0.94–0.96)< 0.001    
Height (cm)891/3347 (27%)0.95 (0.94–0.96)< 0.0010.95 (0.93–0.96)< 0.0010.95 (0.93–0.96)< 0.001
BMI (kg/m2)891/3347 (27%)0.92 (0.89–0.95)< 0.0010.92 (0.89–0.96)< 0.0010.92 (0.89–0.95)< 0.001
HIV infection
 Yes6/24 (25%)0.92 (0.35–2.42)0.872.45 (0.62–9.73)0.201.04 (0.43–2.55)0.92
 No849/3105 (27%)Reference Reference Reference 
Parasitaemia (log10/μL)1007/3707 (27%)1.24 (1.13–1.36)< 0.0011.20 (1.07–1.35)0.0021.14 (1.03–1.26)0.009
Fever > 37.5 °C
 Yes112/325 (34%)1.14 (0.88–1.47)0.33    
 No888/3352 (26%)Reference     
Haemoglobin (g/dL)1003/3690 (27%)0.90 (0.85–0.95)< 0.001    
Gametocytaemia
 Yes36/133 (27%)0.86 (0.57–1.29)0.45    
 No953/3522 (27%)Reference     
Mixed infection
 Yes14/25 (56%)3.11 (1.36–7.12)0.0071.52 (0.52–4.46)0.452.54 (1.07–5.99)0.03
 No993/3682 (27%)Reference Reference Reference 
Malaria transmission
 Low277/726 (38%)1.27 (0.80–2.01)0.32    
 Moderate484/2040 (24%)Reference     
 High246/941 (26%)0.94 (0.60–1.47)0.78    
  1. Intraclass correlation, 0.06. AAP artesunate with atovaquone-proguanil, AL artemether-lumefantrine, aOR adjusted odds ratio, AS artesunate monotherapy, ASAQ artesunate-amodiaquine, ASMQ artesunate-mefloquine, ASSP artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, DP dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, EGA estimated gestational age, G gravidity, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, MI multiple imputation, OR odds ratio, Q quinine monotherapy, QC quinine with clindamycin