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Table 1 Associations of genetically predicted bioavailable testosterone in men and of genetically predicted total testosterone in women with CKD and kidney function using univariable Mendelian randomization in the UK Biobank

From: The role of testosterone in chronic kidney disease and kidney function in men and women: a bi-directional Mendelian randomization study in the UK Biobank

Outcome Exposure #SNPs Sex OR 95% CI p
 CKD Genetically predicted bioT 125 Men 1.17 1.03, 1.33 0.01
Genetically predicted TT 254 Women 1.02 0.92, 1.14 0.68
 Albuminuria Genetically predicted bioT 125 Men 1.15* 1.04, 1.27 0.008
Genetically predicted TT 254 Women 0.96 0.88, 1.06 0.43
     Beta 95% CI p
 eGFR_cr (ml/min per 1.73 m2) Genetically predicted bioT 125 Men − 1.70* − 2.09, − 1.31 2.4 × 10−14
Genetically predicted TT 254 Women − 0.24* − 0.49, 0.02 0.07
 eGFR_crcys (ml/min per 1.73 m2) Genetically predicted bioT 125 Men − 1.27* − 1.62, − 0.91 1.0 × 10−10
Genetically predicted TT 254 Women 0.12* − 0.14, 0.39 0.36
  1. bioT bioavailable testosterone, CKD chronic kidney disease, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, TT total testosterone
  2. *Mendelian randomization pleiotropy residual sum and outlier (MR-PRESSO) was used for the analysis; otherwise, inverse variance weighting was used