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Table 2 Associations of bioavailable testosterone and total testosterone with CKD and kidney function in the UK Biobank using multivariable MR

From: The role of testosterone in chronic kidney disease and kidney function in men and women: a bi-directional Mendelian randomization study in the UK Biobank

Exposure Outcome Sex #SNPs OR 95% CI p
 Genetically predicted bioavailable testosterone CKD Men 464 1.14 1.02, 1.28 0.025
Women 463 0.92 0.71, 1.19 0.52
Albuminuria Men 464 1.17 1.04, 1.32 0.01
Women 463 0.85 0.70, 1.04 0.12
    Beta 95% CI p
eGFR_cr (ml/min per 1.73 m2) Men 464 − 1.06 − 1.52, − 0.60 6.7 × 10−6
Women 463 − 0.71 − 1.70, 0.28 0.16
eGFR_crcys (ml/min per 1.73 m2) Men 464 − 0.48 − 0.97, 0.005 0.05
Women 463 − 0.58 − 1.63, 0.47 0.28
 Genetically predicted total testosterone CKD Men 460 1.13 0.96, 1.32 0.13
Women 581 1.00 0.90, 1.11 0.96
Albuminuria Men 460 1.19 1.02, 1.39 0.03
Women 581 0.95 0.87, 1.04 0.30
    Beta 95% CI p
eGFR_cr (ml/min per 1.73 m2) Men 460 − 1.20 − 1.80, − 0.61 7.7 × 10−5
Women 581 − 0.31 − 0.75, 0.12 0.16
eGFR_crcys (ml/min per 1.73 m2) Men 460 − 0.66 − 1.30, − 0.02 0.045
Women 581 − 0.12 − 0.60, 0.36 0.62
  1. CKD chronic kidney disease, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate
  2. Multivariable MR controlling for sex hormone binding globulin was used