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Table 3 Reporting of treatment effects, confidence intervals, and p values in the 198 studies that performed a statistical analysis

From: Current practice in analysing and reporting binary outcome data—a review of randomised controlled trial reports

 Full text (n = 198)Abstract (n = 198)
Reporting of statistical analysis
 Any treatment effect measure1109 (55%)75 (38%)
 No treatment effect measure, p value only75 (38%)86 (43%)
 No statistical analysis result reported14 (7%)37 (19%)
Reporting of treatment effects2
 Relative treatment effect only (point estimate)55 (28%)42 (21%)
  Point estimate and CI 55 (28%) 42 (21%)
 Absolute treatment effect only (point estimate)33 (17%)26 (13%)
  Point estimate and CI 30 (15%) 25 (13%)
 Both relative and absolute treatment effects reported (point estimate)318 (9%)7 (4%)
  Point estimates and CIs 16 (8%) 6 (3%)
  1. Numbers refer to any analyses for the primary binary outcome in the report and are not limited to the only principal analysis
  2. CI confidence interval
  3. 1Including papers that reported an estimate of an absolute or relative effect measure (point estimate and/or confidence interval)
  4. 2Three studies reported confidence intervals, but no point estimate (full text only). These studies were counted in ‘reporting of statistical analysis’, but not in ‘reporting of treatment effects—relative/absolute treatment effects only (point estimate)’ and ‘both relative and absolute treatment effects reported (point estimate)’
  5. 3Where both absolute and relative treatment effect estimates were presented, different statistical methods were used to obtain these estimates; no papers described that transformations to obtain an absolute effect from a relative one, or vice versa, were used