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Table 1 Baseline characteristic of study population

From: Lactate dehydrogenase and susceptibility to deterioration of mild COVID-19 patients: a multicenter nested case-control study

 All patients (n = 85)Stable mild group (n = 69)Progression group (n = 16)P value
Age, years   < 0.001
Mean ± SD46.6 ± 15.043.9 ± 14.058.2 ± 14.0 
Median, range46 (15–81)45 (15–80)62 (30–81) 
Sex, Male49 (57.6)35 (50.7)14 (87.5)0.010
Symptoms
 Fever71 (83.5)57 (82.5)14 (87.5)0.635
 Cough47 (56.0)38 (55.1)9 (60.0)0.728
 Expectoration29 (34.9)22 (32.4)7 (46.7)0.293
 Fatigue39 (45.9)33 (47.8)6 (37.6)0.455
 Dyspnea10 (11.8)5 (7.2)5 (31.3)0.018
 Diarrhea10 (11.9)9 (13.2)1 (6.3)0.679
 Headache5 (6.0)4 (5.9)1 (6.3)1.000
Laboratory examination
 White blood count4.8 ± 1.94.8 ± 1.85.1 ± 2.20.602
 Neutrophils3.2 ± 1.63.1 ± 1.63.5 ± 1.50.380
 Lymphocytes1.2 ± 0.71.2 ± 0.61.1 ± 1.20.418
 Hemoglobin135.7 ± 13.8136.6 ± 13.6132.3 ± 14.60.272
 Platelets184.6 ± 68.1190.2 ± 73.0160.5 ± 33.00.117
 ALT30.0 ± 68.129.0 ± 19.538.0 ± 14.10.517
 AST31.3 ± 18.829.7 ± 19.538.0 ± 14.10.114
Creatine69.2 ± 22.764.8 ± 14.987.9 ± 37.80.029
 Creatine kinase150.4 ± 236.9136.1 ± 241.7212.2 ± 211.00.250
Troponin T0.030 ± 0.3090.024 ± 0.0170.053 ± 0.0540.052
 Lactate dehydrogenase240.1 ± 84.3222.4 ± 73.8316.4 ± 86.4< 0.001
 NT-proBNP85.7 ± 200.061.7 ± 79.3189.6 ± 423.50.247
 C-reactive protein23.6 ± 25.718.1 ± 20.247.0 ± 33.70.004
Radiology manifestation  0.528
 Normal4 (4.7)4 (5.8)0 (0%) 
 Unilateral involved8 (9.4)7 (10.1)1 (6.3) 
 Bilateral involved73 (85.9)58 (84.1)15 (93.5) 
Chronic medical illness
 Hypertension26 (30.6)17 (24.6)9 (56.3)0.032
 Coronary heart disease1 (1.2)1 (1.4)0 (0%)1.000
 Diabetes mellitus11 (12.9)9 (13.0)2 (12.5)1.000
 Autoimmune disorders1 (1.2)1 (1.4)0 (0%)1.000
 Chronic liver diseases9 (9.4)8 (11.6)0 (0%)0.174
  1. Data are shown as n (%) or mean ± SD unless specified otherwise
  2. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, NT-proBNP N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide