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Table 1 Cause-specific proportions of neonatal (0–27 days) and child (1–59 months) deaths in the study countries

From: Using health facility deaths to estimate population causes of neonatal and child mortality in four African countries

Cause of deathCameroonMalawiNigerNigeria
164 neonatal deaths, 635 child deaths320 neonatal deaths, 691 child deaths453 neonatal deaths, 619 child deaths722 neonatal deaths, 2055 child deaths
% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)
EAVAPCVAEAVAPCVAEAVAPCVAEAVAPCVA
Neonates
Tetanus1.2 (0.2, 3.8)0.0 (−,± −)1.4 (0.5, 3.1)0.0 (−, −)4.0 (2.2, 6.5)0.4 (0.1, 1.3)1.2 (0.6, 2.2)0.4 (0.1, 0.9)
Congenital3.0 (1.1, 6.5)0.0 (−, −)0.3 (0.0, 1.3)0.0 (−, −)2.7 (1.3, 4.7)0.2 (0.0, 0.9)0.9 (0.3, 2.2)1.1 (0.2, 3.4)
BA/BI37.2 (30.6, 44.1)26.2 (20.0, 33.1)15.2 (11.3, 19.7)16.1 (12.2, 20.7)19.9 (15.6, 24.8)20.2 (16.0, 24.9)22.3 (18.7, 26.2)20.3 (16.8, 24.1)
Meningitis1.2 (0.2, 3.8)7.3 (4.1, 11.7)0.9 (0.2, 2.8)3.5 (1.8, 6.1)4.2 (2.4, 6.7)6.7 (4.4, 9.5)1.2 (0.4, 2.6)4.0 (2.6, 5.8)
Diarrhea0.6 (0.0, 2.7)0.6 (0.0, 2.7)1.7 (0.6, 3.7)0.3 (0.0, 1.5)5.7 (3.7, 8.3)0.5 (0.1, 1.6)2.9 (1.7, 4.4)2.3 (1.3, 3.7)
Pneumonia18.9 (13.4, 25.4)16.5 (11.7, 22.2)30.9 (25.5, 36.6)41.3 (35.6, 47.1)11.6 (8.5, 15.2)18.5 (13.9, 23.9)19.9 (16.8, 23.2)30.1 (26.5, 33.8)
Sepsis25.0 (18.9, 31.8)17.7 (12.1, 24.4)23.3 (18.7, 28.2)13.6 (10.0, 17.8)37.4 (32.5, 42.5)39.2 (33.8, 44.8)31.5 (27.6, 35.6)17.9 (14.9, 21.3)
Other1.2 (0.2, 3.7)3.7 (1.5, 7.1)2.9 (1.4, 5.3)0.0 (−, −)2.6 (1.4, 4.5)6.1 (4.2, 8.5)4.8 (3.3, 6.5)8.2 (6.1, 10.7)
Preterm5.5 (2.7, 9.6)17.1 (11.8, 23.4)7.5 (4.8, 11.0)17.6 (13.5, 22.2)2.7 (0.6, 7.4)2.2 (1.1, 3.9)1.9 (1.0, 3.3)3.8 (2.5, 5.6)
Unspecified6.1 (3.1, 10.4)11.0 (6.7, 16.6)15.8 (11.9, 20.4)7.6 (4.8, 11.1)9.2 (6.7, 12.1)6.0 (4.0, 8.3)13.4 (10.5, 16.7)11.9 (9.4, 14.7)
Children
Injury4.1 (2.6, 6.1)3.6 (2.3, 5.4)2.7 (1.3, 4.7)2.7 (1.3, 4.7)0.9 (0.4, 1.8)0.8 (0.3, 1.6)2.8 (2.1, 3.7)2.8 (2.1, 3.7)
AIDS3.3 (2.2, 4.7)6.0 (4.0, 8.5)0.6 (0.2, 1.2)13.0 (10.5, 15.8)2.8 (1.7, 4.3)0.2 (0.0, 0.8)0.6 (0.4, 1.1)0.1 (0.0, 0.3)
Malnutrition2.7 (1.6, 4.1)8.0 (6.0, 10.5)1.6 (0.8, 2.8)7.8 (5.9, 10.1)2.3 (0.7, 5.3)0.4 (0.1, 1.2)0.6 (0.3, 1.0)4.1 (3.2, 5.1)
Measles0.3 (0.1, 1.0)0.8 (0.3, 1.7)1.3 (0.6, 2.4)0.8 (0.3, 1.7)1.4 (0.6, 2.6)3.0 (1.6, 5.0)2.0 (1.4, 2.8)4.4 (3.3, 5.7)
Meningitis16.5 (13.9, 19.5)16.4 (13.6, 19.5)10.3 (8.2, 12.8)4.3 (3.0, 6.1)18.3 (15.1, 21.8)34.1 (29.6, 38.7)5.7 (4.6, 6.9)9.0 (7.5, 10.6)
Dysentery4.3 (2.8, 6.1)3.6 (2.3, 5.4)3.2 (2.1, 4.7)2.7 (1.6, 4.1)6.3 (4.5, 8.5)0.1 (0.0, 0.5)3.7 (2.9, 4.7)3.4 (2.7, 4.4)
Diarrhea21.9 (19.2, 24.7)6.6 (4.8, 8.8)18.4 (15.6, 21.5)12.4 (9.9, 15.2)19.5 (15.9, 23.4)2.2 (1.2, 3.6)22.3 (20.2, 24.5)23.1 (20.9, 25.4)
Pertussis1.3 (0.5, 2.4)6.5 (4.6, 8.7)1.0 (0.4, 2.0)1.5 (0.7, 2.6)0.3 (0.0, 1.4)8.4 (5.7, 11.9)0.6 (0.3, 1.0)5.0 (3.9, 6.2)
Pneumonia20.8 (17.5, 24.3)16.9 (13.9, 20.1)25.5 (22.3, 28.9)29.2 (25.7, 32.9)11.8 (8.9, 15.1)16.1 (13.0, 19.6)16.4 (14.6, 18.4)19.6 (17.6, 21.8)
Malaria19.1 (16.3, 22.1)22.5 (19.3, 26.0)24.7 (21.4, 28.2)18.7 (15.8, 21.8)28.9 (25.2, 32.9)30.4 (26.1, 34.9)36.3 (33.9, 38.8)23.7 (21.4, 26.1)
Other1.1 (0.5, 2.1)5.8 (4.2, 7.9)1.6 (0.8, 2.9)1.9 (1.0, 3.1)3.0 (1.6, 5.0)1.9 (0.4, 5.0)3.0 (2.2, 3.9)2.2 (1.5, 3.1)
Unspecified4.7 (3.3, 6.5)3.3 (2.2, 4.8)9.1 (7.0, 11.6)5.0 (3.5, 6.9)4.5 (3.0, 6.4)2.4 (1.4, 3.9)5.9 (4.8, 7.1)2.6 (1.9, 3.4)
  1. EAVA expert algorithm verbal autopsy, PCVA physician-coded verbal autopsy, BA/BI birth asphyxia/birth injury
  2. ±Not estimable