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Table 2 Significantly different community and health facility causes of neonatal deaths in the study countries

From: Using health facility deaths to estimate population causes of neonatal and child mortality in four African countries

CountryAnalysis methodCause of deathCommunity
N deaths (%)
%MF (95% CI)
Facility
N deaths (%)
%MF (95% CI)
p*
Cameroon  109 (66.5%)55 (33.5%) 
 EAVANon-significant
PCVABirth asphyxia/birth injury21.1 (14.7, 28.6)36.4 (24.0, 50.1)0.023
Malawi  144 (45.0%)176 (55.0%) 
 EAVABirth asphyxia/birth injury9.4 (5.4, 14.9)20.0 (14.0, 27.0)0.011
Pneumonia24.5 (17.9, 32.0)36.1 (28.4, 44.3)0.027
Other5.3 (2.3, 10.2)1.0 (0.2, 3.0)0.015
Unspecified20.3 (13.9, 27.9)12.2 (7.9, 17.6)0.049
PCVAUnspecified11.2 (6.4, 17.5)4.6 (2.1, 8.4)0.028
Niger  368 (81.2%)85 (18.8%) 
 EAVASepsis40.3 (35.0, 45.7)25.0 (15.5, 36.3)0.019
Preterm1.2 (0.4, 2.5)9.6 (0.8, 33.6)0.011
PCVADiarrhea0.0 (−,± −)2.7 (0.4, 8.6)0.031**
Sepsis42.1 (36.1, 48.2)26.8 (16.7, 38.8)0.026
Nigeria  524 (72.6%)198 (27.4%) 
 EAVABirth asphyxia/birth injury19.1 (15.2, 23.5)30.8 (23.3, 39.0)0.006
Other6.0 (4.1, 8.4)1.4 (0.4, 3.5)0.006
PCVABirth asphyxia/birth injury16.9 (13.2, 21.1)29.4 (22.0, 37.7)0.002
Sepsis20.7 (17.1, 24.8)10.6 (6.0, 16.8)0.007
  1. MF mortality fraction, EAVA expert algorithm verbal autopsy, PCVA physician-coded verbal autopsy
  2. *Significance determined by Rao-Scott chi-square
  3. **Significance determined by Fisher’s exact test
  4. ±Not estimable