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Table 1 Patient characteristics stratified by AKI status

From: Epidemiology and short-term outcomes of acute kidney injury among patients in the intensive care unit in Laos: a nationwide multicenter, prospective, and observational study

 Non-AKI (N = 952)AKI (n = 508)All (N = 1460)
Age (years)50.9 (20.3)58 (18)53.4 (19.8)
Female405 (42.5%)210 (41.3%)615 (42.1%)
Reimbursement
 Government officer56 (5.9%)31 (6.1%)85 (5.8%)
 Out-of-pockets810 (85.2%)417 (82.1%)1227 (84.1%)
 SS, private insurances85 (8.9%)60 (11.8%)145 (9.9%)
BMI
 Underweight79 (8.3%)36 (7.1%)115 (7.9%)
 Normal707 (74.3%)358 (70.5%)1065 (73.0%)
 Overweight/obese166 (17.4%)114 (22.4%)280 (19.1%)
Primary diagnosis
 Cardiovascular diseases60 (6.3%)48 (9.5%)108 (7.4%)
 Renal diseases16 (1.7%)49 (9.7%)65 (4.5%)
 Infectious diseases157 (16.5%)77 (15.2%)234 (16.0%)
 Gastrointestinal diseases113 (11.9%)58 (11.4%)171 (11.7%)
 Hematologic disease13 (1.4%)9 (1.8%)22 (1.5%)
 Respiratory diseases101 (10.6%)81 (15.9%)182 (12.5%)
 Neurologic diseases150 (15.8%)51 (10.0%)201 (13.8%)
 Endocrine diseases34 (3.6%)42 (8.3%)76 (5.2%)
 Rheumatologic diseases2 (0.2%)1 (0.2%)3 (0.2%)
 Oncologic diseases8 (0.8%)9 (1.8%)17 (1.2%)
 Surgical-related diseases298 (31.3%)83 (16.3%)381 (26.1%)
Comorbidity
 HT260 (27.3%)179 (35.2%)439 (30.1%)
 DM168 (17.6%)160 (31.5%)328 (22.5%)
 CKD25 (2.6%)121 (23.8%)146 (10%)
 Cerebrovascular23 (2.4%)18 (3.5%)41 (2.8%)
 Malignancy21 (2.2%)15 (3%)36 (2.5%)
 CAD11 (1.2%)14 (2.8%)25 (1.7%)
APACHE II score15.6 (8.5)18.3 (8.5%)16.6 (8.6%)
Non-renal SOFA score5.4 (3.2)5.5 (3.5)5.4 (3.3)
Vasopressors201 (21.1%)153 (30.1%)354 (24.3%)
Mechanical ventilation260 (27.3%)98 (19.3%)358 (24.5%)
Urine output (mL/day)1293.7 (872.1)747.2 (731.5)1103.6 (865.7)
Anemiaa315 (33.1%)273 (53.7%)588 (40.3%)
Percent of fluid accumulationb0.42 (1.5)0.79 (1.5)0.55 (1.6)
Diuretics99 (10.4%)110 (21.7%)209 (14.3%)
  1. Data are mean (SD), n (%), or median (Q1, Q3), unless stated otherwise
  2. SS social security, BMI body mass index, HT hypertension, DM diabetes mellitus, CKD chronic kidney disease, CAD coronary artery disease, CVD cerebrovascular disease, APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment
  3. All these parameters came from the first day of ICU admission
  4. 1P value from Fisher’s exact test instead of Chi-square test
  5. aAnemia is defined as hemoglobin < 13.5 g/dL in men and < 12 g/dL in women
  6. bPercent of fluid accumulation equals day 1 intake (L) − output (L)/baseline body weight (kg) × 100