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Table 3 Risk factors for AKI development using mixed logistic regression clustering by sites

From: Epidemiology and short-term outcomes of acute kidney injury among patients in the intensive care unit in Laos: a nationwide multicenter, prospective, and observational study

 Adjusted OR (95% CI)P value
Age, 10-year increment1.14 (1.06, 1.24)0.001
Reimbursement
 Government officer0.66 (0.35, 1.26)0.21
 Out-of-pockets0.76 (0.51, 1.15)0.19
 SS, private insurancesReference 
BMI
 Underweight1.01 (0.64, 1.61)0.96
 NormalReference 
 Overweight/obese1.59 (1.15, 2.19)0.005
Primary diagnosis
 Cardiovascular diseases1.79 (1.03, 3.11)0.04
 Renal diseases3.60 (1.74, 7.45)0.001
 Infectious diseases1.45 (0.96, 2.21)0.08
 Gastrointestinal diseases1.30 (0.81, 2.10)0.28
 Hematologic disease2.36 (0.88, 6.34)0.09
 Respiratory diseases1.68 (1.03, 2.74)0.04
 Neurologic diseases1.04 (0.64, 1.69)0.87
 Endocrine diseases1.68 (0.86, 3.28)0.13
 Rheumatologic diseases0.84 (0.05, 15.82)0.91
 Oncologic diseases4.81 (1.67, 13.87)0.004
 Surgical-related diseasesReference 
Comorbidity
 HT0.99 (0.70, 1.40)0.96
 DM1.28 (0.92, 1.78)0.14
 CKD6.57 (3.98, 10.83)< 0.001
 CAD1.39 (0.54, 3.61)0.50
 CVD  
 Malignancy  
APACHE II score1.00 (0.98, 1.03)0.89
Non-renal SOFA score1.03 (0.97, 1.10)0.56
Mechanical ventilation0.90 (0.64, 1.28)0.56
Anemiaa1.39 (1.03, 1.87)0.03
Fluid accumulation (per 1% increase)1.28 (1.17, 1.39)< 0.001
Diuretics1.60 (1.08, 2.37)0.02
  1. All these parameters came from the first day of ICU admission
  2. Exclude 14 patients who had AKI as the primary diagnosis for ICU admission
  3. SS social security, HT hypertension, BMI body mass index, DM diabetes mellitus, CKD chronic kidney disease, CAD coronary artery disease, CVD cerebrovascular disease, APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment
  4. aAnemia is defined as hemoglobin < 13.5 g/dL in men and < 12 g/dL in women