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Table 1 Characteristics of Malawian urban adolescents and adults according to sex

From: A comparison of the associations between adiposity and lipids in Malawi and the United Kingdom

 AdolescentsAdults
Females
n = 774 (62.0%)
Males
n = 474 (38.0%)
Females
n = 1487 (65.3%)
Males
n = 790 (34.7%)
Age—mean (SD)18.7 (0.5)18.7 (0.5)47.8 (5.8)53.4 (7.8)
Ethnicity—N(%)
 Chewa285 (36.8)171 (35.9)513 (34.5)282 (35.7)
 Tumbuka104 (13.4)64 (13.5)197 (13.3)98 (12.4)
 Ngoni139 (18.0)91 (19.3)317 (21.3)137 (17.3)
 Yao57 (7.4)28 (5.9)118 (7.9)71 (9.0)
 Lomwe116 (15.0)87 (18.4)170 (11.4)96 (12.2)
 Nkonde10 (1.3)6 (1.3)21 (1.4)12 (1.5)
 Other63 (8.1)27 (5.7)151 (10.2)94 (11.9)
Education—N(%)
 No formal10 (1.3)2 (0.4)149 (10.0)23 (2.9)
 Primary (1–5 years)32 (4.1)10 (2.1)219 (14.7)61 (7.7)
 Primary (6–8 years)121 (15.6)65 (13.8)492 (33.1)187 (23.7)
 Secondary (9–12 years)549 (70.9)368 (77.6)435 (29.3)325 (41.1)
 Tertiary (12+ years)62 (8.0)29 (6.1)192 (12.9)194 (24.6)
Quintiles of household assets score—median (IQR)
 1 (most deprived)62.5 (49.0)70.5 (41.5)70.5 (41)70.5 (43)
 2205.5 (35.0)205.5 (12)205.5 (51.5)205.5 (43)
 3325.5 (196.5)325.5 (145)325.5 (192)325.5 (185)
 4520.5 (27.0)520.5 (35)524.7 (35)525.5 (35)
 5 (least deprived)2520.5 (35.0)2520.5 (35)2523.3 (35)2535.5 (35))
Marital status—N(%)
 Never married626 (80.9)471 (99.4)21 (1.4)15 (1.9)
 Married134 (17.3)3 (0.6)1048 (70.5)717 (90.8)
 Widowed2 (0.3)0277 (18.6)28 (3.5)
 Divorced12 (1.5)0141 (9.5)30 (3.8)
Parity—N(%)
 0594 (76.7)NA19 (1.3)NA
 1167 (21.6)NA55 (3.7)NA
 29 (1.2)NA103 (6.9)NA
 31 (0.1)NA154 (10.4)NA
 4+3 (0.4)NA1156 (77.7)NA
Smoking status—N(%)
 Non-smoker772 (99.8)443 (93.5)1481 (99.6)644 (81.5)
 Former smoker1 (0.1)20 (4.2)4 (0.3)72 (9.1)
 Current smoker1 (0.1)11 (2.3)2 (0.1)74 (9.4)
Alcohol intake—N(%)
 Never737 (95.2)359 (75.7)1419 (95.4)561 (71.0)
 < 1 day/month26 (3.4)47 (9.9)35 (2.4)62 (7.9)
 1–3 days/month6 (0.8)43 (9.1)23 (1.5)73 (9.2)
 1–4 days/week4 (0.5)18 (3.8)6 (0.4)68 (8.6)
 5+ days/week1 (0.1)7 (1.5)4 (0.3)26 (3.3)
Physical activity levelaN(%)
 Low4 (0.5)1 (0.2)24 (1.6)79 (10.0)
 Moderate14 (1.8)31 (6.5)79 (5.3)175 (22.1)
 High756 (97.7)442 (93.3)1384 (93.1)536 (67.9)
Lipid-lowering medication—N(%)
 No raised cholesterol774 (100.0)474 (100.0)1470 (98.9)781 (98.9)
 Raised cholesterol, no medication0012 (0.8)8 (1.0)
 Raised cholesterol, taking medication005 (0.3)1 (0.1)
HIV status—N(%)
 HIV negative695 (97.3)389 (98.7)1075 (78.1)582 (84.1)
 HIV positive19 (2.7)5 (1.3)301 (21.9)110 (15.9)
  1. Adolescent males and females are aged 18 to 19 years, adult females are aged 40 to 60 years, and adult males are aged 43 to 70 years
  2. HIV human immunodeficiency virus, IQR interquartile range, NA not applicable, SD standard deviation
  3. aLevel of physical activity based on metabolic equivalent (MET) and categorised based on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) [41] scoring protocol