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Table 1 Study characteristics of the included studies reporting antimicrobial resistance in invasive NTS infections in sub-Saharan Africa

From: Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella infections in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review on antimicrobial resistance and treatment

Study characteristics - population n (%) Study characteristics - microbiology n (%)
Region sub-Saharan Africa n= 53 Number of NTS isolates 53
Central Africa 5 (9) 10 - 49 15 (28)
Eastern Africa 31 (58) 50 - 99 8 (15)
Southern Africa 3 (6) 100 - 199 12 (23)
Western Africa 16 (30) 200 - 499 12 (23)
   > 500 6 (11)
Study design n= 53   
Retrospective 21 (40) Clinical specimen 53
Prospective 32 (60) Blood 43 (81)
   CSF 2 (4)
Duration study period n= 53 Blood + CSF 4 (8)
<1 year 8 (15) Blood + CSF + other normally sterile body sites 4 (8)
1 - 2 years 11 (21)   
2 - 5 years 14 (26) Method antibiotic susceptibility testing 52
5 - 10 years 8 (15) Disk diffusion 28 (54)
> 10 years 12 (23) E-test 1 (2)
   Automated methods 2 (4)
Study setting n= 48 Disk diffusion + E-test 17 (33)
Population based 3 (6) Automated methods + disk diffusion / E-test 4 (8)
District hospital 19 (40)   
University / tertiary care hospital 12 (25) International guidelines for interpretation AST 39
Multicenter 14 (29) CLSI / NCCLS 32 (82)
   EUCAST 2 (5)
Study population n= 50 National guidelines (French microbiological society or BSAC) 5 (13)
Children 28 (56)   
Adults 8 (16) Version of guidelines specified 36 (92)
Children and adults 14 (28)   
   Definitions of fluoroquinolone non-susceptibility 38
HIV prevalence n= 26 Mixed reporting of resistance & decreased susceptibility 10 (26)
≤20% in enrolled patients / patients with invasive NTS infection 9 (35) Resistance & decreased susceptibility separately reported 8 (21)
>20% in enrolled patients / patients with invasive NTS infection 17 (65) Assessed before introduction of revised breakpoints 20 (53)
Number of screened cultures n= 53 Assessment of fluoroquinolone non-susceptibility 38
0 - 99 5 (9) Only nalidixic acid resistance reported 1 (3)
100 - 499 10 (19) Only ciprofloxacin resistance reported 25 (66)
500 - 999 9 (17) Nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin resistance reported 11 (29)
1000 - 5000 12 (23) Pefloxacin resistance reported 1 (3)
> 5000 17 (32)   
  1. NTS non-typhoidal Salmonella, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, AST antibiotic susceptibility testing, CLSI Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, EUCAST European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, BSAC British Society of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy