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Table 1 Selected characteristics of ED validation cohort

From: Blood transcriptomic discrimination of bacterial and viral infections in the emergency department: a multi-cohort observational validation study

Characteristic Proven bacterial infection Proven viral infection Empirical Abx (no positive micro) Self-limiting illness (no positive micro) Others
  Total Subset with RNA Total Subset with RNA Total Subset with RNA Total Subset with RNA Total Subset with RNA
Total number 102 68 16 14 176 93 32 25 6 0
Age (median, range) 54 (19–99) 51 (19–90) 45 (20–91) 44 (20–91) 52 (18–95) 46 (18–91) 46 (17–89) 37 (17–89) 41 (22–61) n/a
Gender (% males) 52.6 51.5 42.9 35.7 52.8 48.4 51.9 48 66.7 n/a
Ethnicity (%) White 72.2 64.7 50 50 66.9 62.4 55.6 40 16.7 n/a
Asian 10.3 11.7 21.4 21.4 16.6 19.3 22.2 24 33.3 n/a
African 7.2 5.8 28.6 28.6 6.1 4.3 14.8 12 33.3 n/a
Others 10.3 17.6 0 0 10.4 13.9 7.4 24 16.7 n/a
Duration of illness (%) < 2 days 25.0 27.9 18.8 14.2 26.3 30.1 22.6 24 16.7 n/a
2–7 days 36.5 30.9 37.5 35.7 41.1 37.6 38.7 44 66.7 n/a
7–14 days 7.7 5.9 18.8 0 9.1 9.7 9.7 4 0.0 n/a
> 14 days 2.9 1.5 12.5 35.7 4.0 1.1 6.5 4 0.0 n/a
Unknown 27.9 33.9 12.5 14.2 19.4 21.5 22.6 24 16.7 n/a
SIRS score (%) 0 2.0 1.5 6.3 7.1 4.5 5.4 18.8 8.0 33.3 n/a
1 18.6 23.5 12.5 14.3 21.0 19.4 21.9 24.0 16.7 n/a
2 38.2 33.8 68.8 64.3 38.1 39.8 43.8 52.0 16.7 n/a
3 35.3 33.8 12.5 14.3 31.3 29.0 9.4 12.0 33.3 n/a
4 5.9 7.4 0.0 0.0 5.1 6.5 6.3 4.0 0.0 n/a
Temperature (°C, range) 38.7 (37.5–40.6) 38.7 (37.5–40.6) 38.8 (37.7–40.1) 38.5 (37.7–40.1) 38.5 (37.5–40.9) 38.4 (37.5–40.9) 38.2 (37.5–39.4) 38.1 (37.5–39.4) 39.0 (37.9–40.4) n/a
Systolic blood pressure mmHg (median, range) 130 (33–197) 125 (33–177) 122 (99–158) 115 (99–158) 130 (76–216) 130 (83–216) 127 (99–176) 128 (108–176) 123 (99–176) n/a
Heart rate, beats/minute (median, range) 108 (63–170) 104 (70–149) 113 (80–150) 103 (80–147) 110 (55–173) 110 (68–173) 104 (54–148) 106 (69–148) 113 (90–137) n/a
Respiratory rate, breaths/minute (median, range) 21 (14–54) 18 (14–40) 19 (14–24) 20 (14–24) 18 (13–48) 18 (14–48) 18 (14–40) 18 (15–14) 19 (16–20) n/a
White cell count × 109/mL (median, range) 12.8 (3.3–27.1) 13.3 (3.3–27.1) 8.0 (3.7–15.0) 7.8 (3.7–15.0) 12.0 (0.6–29.6) 12.0 (3.7–29.6) 10.1 (0.8–17.9) 10.5 (0.8–17.6) 8.1 (5.9–18.6) n/a
Neutrophils (%) 83.4 80.8 76 75.6 83 81.9 77.7 78.1 79.1 n/a
CRP mg/L (median, range) 82.6 (3.9–476) 77.5 (3.9–375.6) 24.9 (3.9–146.7) 24.9 (3.9–146.7) 76.1 (0.7–512.6) 79.8 (0.7–290.2) 31.2 (0.6–282.5) 31.2 (0.6–282.5) 104.4 (9.9–233) n/a
Antibacterial treatment (%) 100 100 56 64 100 100 0 0 33 n/a
Hospital length of stay (median no. of days, range) 6 (1–> 30) 6 (1–> 30) 3 (1–> 30) 3 (1–> 30) 4 (0–> 30) 4 (1–> 30) 2 (1–> 30) 2 (1–> 30) 3 (1–4) n/a