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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the English and Swedish cohorts included in the heart failure (primary outcome) analysis

From: Stopping renin-angiotensin system blockers after acute kidney injury and risk of adverse outcomes: parallel population-based cohort studies in English and Swedish routine care

 English cohortSwedish cohort
Continued ACEI/ARBStopped ACEI/ARBContinued ACEI/ARBStopped ACEI/ARB
N = 3300N = 4003N = 555N = 1235
Age (years), mean (SD)77 (11)77 (11)75 (12)75 (12)
Age (years)
 18–69756 (23)914 (23)179 (32)393 (32)
 70–74386 (12)482 (12)73 (13)162 (13)
 75–79609 (19)731 (18)80 (14)161 (13)
 80–84672 (20)827 (21)94 (17)214 (17)
 85–89552 (17)655 (16)85 (15)201 (16)
 ≥ 90325 (10)394 (10)44 (8)104 (8)
Women1569 (48)1862 (47)255 (46)550 (45)
Baseline eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2), mean (SD)55 (21)53 (22)53 (23)55 (24)
eGFR category
 No known CKD388 (12)487 (12)25 (5)102 (8)
 G1-No CKD202 (6)214 (5)38 (7)106 (9)
 G2-Mild894 (27)999 (25)164 (30)357 (29)
 G3a-Mild-Mod726 (22)838 (21)118 (21)237 (19)
 G3b-Mod-Severe775 (24)911 (23)112 (20)242 (20)
 G4-Severe297 (9)504 (13)83 (15)153 (12)
 G5-Kidney failure18 (1)50 (1)15 (3)38 (3)
Comorbidities
 Arrhythmia1069 (32)1180 (30)233 (42)452 (37)
 Diabetes1596 (48)1824 (46)259 (47)507 (41)
 Heart failure1067 (32)1146 (29)285 (51)563 (46)
 Hypertension2869 (87)3470 (87)472 (85)1078 (87)
 IHD1770 (54)1981 (50)213 (38)445 (36)
Medications
 Beta blocker1453 (44)1643 (41)389 (70)825 (67)
 CCB1152 (35)1458 (36)205 (37)452 (37)
 Loop diuretic1942 (59)2273 (57)168 (30)331 (27)
 Spironolactone416 (13)432 (11)144 (26)279 (23)
Ethnicity
 White3058 (93)3812 (95)  
 Black59 (2)45 (1)  
 Asian119 (4)85 (2)  
 Other35 (1)26 (1)  
 Missing29 (1)35 (1)  
Smoking
 Non-smoker986 (30)1211 (30)  
 Ex-smoker1923 (58)2360 (59)  
 Current smoker378 (12)425 (11)  
 Missing13 (< 1)7 (< 1)  
Alcohol use
 Non-drinker389 (12)433 (11)  
 Current drinker2133 (65)2683 (67)  
 Ex-drinker611 (19)713 (18)  
 Missing167 (5)174 (4)  
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD)29 (7)29 (7)  
BMI (kg/m2)
 BMI < 18.584 (3)83 (2)  
 BMI 18.5–24.9770 (23)1019 (25)  
 BMI 25–29.91061 (32)1278 (32)  
 BMI ≥ 301265 (38)1484 (37)  
 Missing120 (4)139 (4)  
Dialysis during baseline AKI admission71 (2)190 (5)  
  1. Data are n (%) unless otherwise specified. BMI, alcohol use, smoking, and ethnicity were not available in the Swedish dataset
  2. SD standard deviation, CKD chronic kidney disease, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR category using KDIGO cut-points without the chronicity requirement, mod moderate, IHD ischaemic heart disease, CCB calcium channel blockers, BMI body mass index, AKI acute kidney injury