Skip to main content

Table 1 Attributes and levels presented to respondents for each choice alternative

From: Why do hospital prescribers continue antibiotics when it is safe to stop? Results of a choice experiment survey

FactorLevelsCoding
123
Patient’s presenting symptoms
[SYMPTOMS]
Symptoms indicating a urinary tract infection, with kidney pain.Fever, cough and possible pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray.Off-legs and confused. Possible urinary tract infection, possible lower respiratory tract infection. Might have experienced a fall [base level so variable not named]1.Categorical variable—effects coded
Whether early discontinuation of antibiotic treatment within 72 h of treatment initiation would be in conflict with local antibiotic guidelines [CONFLICT]Early discontinuation would strongly conflict with local antibiotic guidelines.Early discontinuation would somewhat conflict with local antibiotic guidelines.Early discontinuation would not conflict with local antibiotic guidelines [base level so variable not named]1.Categorical variable—effects coded
Risk of significant harm arising from continued antibiotic treatment [CONTINUE RISK]Likely. In 30 cases out of every 100 like this, the patient will experience an adverse effect from continued antibiotic treatment.Somewhat likely. In 10 cases out of every 100 like this, the patient will experience an adverse effect from continued antibiotic treatment.Negligible. In 1 case out of every 100 like this, the patient will experience an adverse effect from continued antibiotic treatment.Assumed to be linear—coded as a continuous variable
Risk of significant harm arising from discontinuing antibiotic treatment [STOP RISK]Likely. In 30 cases out of every 100 like this, the patient will have a relapse, recurrence or readmission if antibiotic treatment is discontinued.Somewhat likely. In 10 cases out of every 100 like this, the patient will have a relapse, recurrence or readmission if antibiotic treatment is discontinued.Negligible. In 1 case out of every 100 like this, the patient will have a relapse, recurrence or readmission if antibiotic treatment is discontinued.Assumed to be linear—coded as a continuous variable
Premorbid condition of the patient [PREMORBID]The patient has severe frailty and comorbidities.The patient has moderate frailty and comorbidities.The patient was previously fit and well [base level so variable not named]1.Categorical variable—effects coded
Level of external pressure to continue antibiotic treatment [EXTERNAL PRESSURE]There is no external pressure to continue antibiotic treatment.There is some external pressure to continue antibiotic treatment.There is heavy external pressure to continue antibiotic treatment [base level so variable not named]1.Categorical variable—effects coded
  1. 1Ngene codes the top level as the base variable, rather than the bottom variable. Factor names are in square brackets