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Table 1 Demographics and baseline characteristics by outcome of hospital admission

From: COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study with focus on the over-80s and hospital-onset disease

 All patients (n = 450)By outcome of hospital stay, where available (n = 410)p value for comparison
Discharged (n = 237)Died (n = 173)
Demographics
 Age in years, median (IQR)72 (56, 83)61 (49, 79)80 (72, 88)< 0.001*
 Age breakdown, n (%)
  < 4032 (7)29 (12)2 (1)
  40–59105 (23)81 (34)10 (6)
  60–79163 (36)70 (30)71 (41)
  > 80150 (33)57 (24)90 (52)
 Male gender, n (%)272 (60)134 (57)111 (64)0.146
 BMI, median (IQR)26 (24, 30)27 (24, 30)25 (23, 31.5)0.214
 Receiving care prior to admission, n (%)118 (26)45 (19)69 (40)< 0.001*
  Care home, n (%)45 (38)10 (4)35 (20)
  Own home + carers, n (%)49 (42)21 (9)26 (15)
  Other care, n (%)24 (20)14 (6)8 (5)
 CFS if > 65 years, median (IQR)5 (3, 6)4 (3, 5.5)5 (3, 6)0.014
 Ever smoker, n (% of available data)76 (31)50 (35)20 (26)0.228
 COVID-19 acquired in hospital, n (%)31 (7)20 (8)7 (4)0.117
 Ethnicity, n (%)0.072**
  Asian51 (11)31 (13)13 (8)
  Black33 (7)19 (8)11 (6)
  White265 (59)127 (54)118 (68)
  Other77 (17)42 (18)26 (15)
  Unavailable24 (5)18 (8)5 (3)
 PCR test returning positive, n (%)   0.59**
  First410 (91)214 (90)158 (91) 
  Second34 (8)19 (8)14 (8) 
  Third6 (1)4 (6)1 (1) 
Pre-existing comorbidities,n(%)
 Hypertension195 (43)87 (37)90 (52)0.0029
 Cardiac condition141 (31)55 (23)78 (45)< 0.001*
 Diabetes134 (30)68 (29)53 (31)0.589
 Respiratory condition85 (19)47 (20)34 (20)1.00
 Immunosuppression42 (9)27 (11)13 (8)0.251
Disease characteristics
 Symptoms at presentation, n (%) 
  Cough317 (70)173 (73)113 (65)0.228
  Breathlessness282 (63)142 (60)113 (65)0.204
  Diarrhoea70 (16)38 (16)28 (16)1.00
 Symptom duration at presentation in days, median (IQR)5 (2, 8)5 (2, 9)4 (2, 7)0.109
 Signs at presentation 
  Respiratory rate24 (20, 30)23 (19, 28)26 (22, 33)< 0.001*
  SaO2, median (IQR)94 (90, 96)95 (92, 96)92 (88, 95)< 0.001*
(n [%] measured on supplemental O2)235 (52)106 (45)106 (61)
  Heart rate, median (IQR)90 (80, 103.5)90 (80, 103.5)90 (78.25, 100)0.970
  Systolic BP < 10038 (8)16 (7)19 (11)0.180
  Median temperature37.9 (37.2, 38.4)38 (37.3, 38.5)37.8 (37.2, 38.1)0.004
  Fever > 37.8262 (58)143 (60)88 (51)0.081
 Abnormal chest radiograph, n (%)370 (82)181 (76)153 (88)0.015
 Antibiotics given, n (%)332 (74)165 (70)136 (79)0.049
 Length of stay in days, median (IQR)7 (3, 11)7 (4, 12)6 (3, 10)0.127
 Length of stay in days, median (IQR)7 (3, 11)7 (4, 12)6 (3, 10)0.127
 Status at day 5, n (%) 
  Discharged79 (18)79 (33)0 (0)
  Non-intubated inpatient243 (54)146 (62)77 (45)
  Intubated56 (12)10 (4)26 (15)
  Died70 (16)0 (0)70 (40)
  1. Comparisons between those who died and those who were discharged used the Kruskal-Wallis test or the chi-squared test as appropriate. The Bonferroni method was used to correct for multiple comparisons, and therefore, a stringent p value cutoff of 0.05/25 = 0.002 was used to assess significance (indicated by *)
  2. **Differences were assessed by χ2 test to examine differences in overall composition between groups