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Table 2 Prevalence of smokeless tobacco use (%) in different countries of the world according to WHO sub-regional classification

From: Global burden of disease due to smokeless tobacco consumption in adults: an updated analysis of data from 127 countries

WHO sub-regions Country M F Source Year
Africa (region D) Algeria* 10 0.8 Algeria Adult Tobacco Survey [25] 2010
Benin* 9 3 STEPS [26] 2015
Burkina Faso* 5.6 11.6 STEPS [26] 2013
Cameroon* 2.2 3.8 GATS [27] 2013
Cape Verde 3.5 5.8 STEPS [26] 2007*
Chad 1.9 0.4 STEPS [26] 2008
Comoros 7.72 2.99 DHS [28] 2012
Gabon 0.48 0.34 DHS [28] 2012
Gambia 0.8 1.4 STEPS [26] 2010 *
Ghana 1.33 0.2 DHS [28] 2008
Guinea 1.4 1.5 STEPS [26] 2009
Liberia* 1.1 3.1 STEPS [26] 2011
Madagascar 24.66 19.6 DHS [28] 2009
Mali 5 1.2 STEPS [26] 2007
Mauritania 5.7 28.3 STEPS [26] 2006
Niger 4.55 2.3 DHS [29] 2012
Nigeria* 2.9 0.9 GATS [27] 2012
Sao Tome & Principe 3.8 1.9 STEPS [26] 2009
Senegal* 0.3 1 GATS [27] 2015
Seychelles** 0.3 0.4 The Seychelles Heart Study IV [25] 2013–14
Sierra Leone 2.9 12.1 STEPS [26] 2009
Togo 5.1 2.2 STEPS [26] 2010
Africa (region E) *Botswana* 1.5 6.5 STEPS [26] 2014
*Burundi 0.03 0.31 DHS [28] 2011
Congo (Brazzaville) 8.3 1.54 DHS [28] 2012
Congo (Republic) 8.67 3.22 DHS [28] 2013
Côte d’Ivoire 0.61 1.27 DHS [28] 2012
Eritrea* 11.6 0.1 STEPS [26] 2011
Ethiopia* 2.6 0.8 GATS [27] 2016
Kenya* 5.3 3.8 GATS [27] 2014
*Lesotho 1.3 9.1 DHS [29] 2009
*Malawi 1.9 5 STEPS [26] 2009
Mozambique 10.94 0.82 DHS [28] 2011
Namibia 1.8 2.3 DHS [29] 2006–07
Rwanda* 0.6 3.3 STEPS [26] 2012
*South Africa* 1.4 8.4 South African Social Attitude Survey [25] 2007
Swaziland* 2.7 1.8 STEPS [26] 2014 *
*Tanzania 2.03 0.83 DHS [28] 2010
Uganda* 1.7 3 GATS [27] 2013
Zambia* 2.2 6.8 STEPS [26] 2017
Zimbabwe 1.6 0.4 DHS [30] 2011
Americas (region A) *Canada* 0.8 CTADS [31] 2015*
USA 6.5 0.4 ICS [30] 2010
Americas (region B) Argentina 0.1 0.2 GATS [27] 2012
Barbados 0 0.6 STEPS [26] 2007*
*Brazil 0.6 0.3 GATS [27] 2008
Costa Rica** 0.1 0 GATS [27] 2015
Dominican Republic 1.9 0.3 DHS [29] 2007*
Grenada 2.2 0.3 STEPS [26] 2011
Mexico* 0.4 0 GATS [27] 2015
Panama** 1 0.5 GATS [27] 2013
Paraguay 3 1.6 STEPS [25] 2011
St Kitts & Nevisa 0.3 0.1 STEPS [26] 2007
St Lucia** 1.3 0.2 STEPS [26] 2012*
Trinidad & Tobago 0.5 0.3 STEPS [26] 2011
*Uruguay** 0.3 GATS [27] 2009
Venezuela 6.2 0.9 National Survey of Drugs in the General Population [25] 2011
Americas (region D) Haiti 2.5 DHS [29] 2005–06*
Eastern Mediterranean (region B) Kuwait** 0.5 0 STEPS [26] 2014
Libya 2.2 0.1 STEPS [26] 2009
Qatar** 1.3 0 GATS [27] 2013
Saudi Arabia* 1.5 0.3 Saudi Health Information Survey [25] 2014
Tunisia 8.6 2.2 ICS [30] 2005–06
Eastern Mediterranean (region D) Egypt* 0.4 0 STEPS [26] 2017
Iraq* 0.4 0.02 STEPS [26] 2015
Morocco** 4.4 STEPS [26] 2017
Pakistan* 11.4 3.7 GATS [27] 2014
Sudan* 14.3 0.2 STEPS [26] 2016
Yemen 13.7 4.8 National Health and Demographic Survey [25] 2013
Europe (region A) Austria* 2.8 0.5 Representative Survey on Substance Abuse [32] 2015
Belgium 1.1 0.6 SEBS [33] 2012
Cyprus 2.1 0.4 SEBS [33] 2012
Czech Republic* 2.2 1.2 The use of tobacco in the Czech Republic [25] 2015
Denmark* 2.3 0.9 Monitoring Smoking Habits in the Danish Population [25] 2015
Finland* 5.6 0.4 Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population [25] 2014
France 1.2 0.6 SEBS [33] 2012
Germany 3.4 3.4 SEBS [33] 2012
Iceland* 13 3 May–December Household Surveys done by Gallup [25] 2015
Ireland 2.2 0.9 SEBS [33] 2012
Italy 1.8 1.5 SEBS [33] 2012
Luxembourg 1.8 1 SEBS [33] 2012
Malta 5.5 1.5 SEBS [33] 2012
Netherlands 0.3 0.1 The Dutch Continuous Survey of Smoking Habits [25] 2011
Norway* 21 6 Statistics Norway Smoking Habits Survey [25] 2015
Portugal 4.4 1.1 SEBS [33] 2012
Slovenia 1.8 0.4 SEBS [33] 2012
Spain 0.4 0.2 SEBS [33] 2012
Sweden* 25 7 National Survey of Public Health [25] 2015
Switzerland* 4.2 1.2 Addiction Monitoring survey [25] 2013
United Kingdom 1.6 0.5 SEBS [33] 2012
Europe (Region B) Azerbaijan* 0.2 0 National study of risk factors for non-communicable diseases [25] 2011
Armenia 1.8 0 DHS [29] 2005
Bulgaria 0.3 0 SEBS [33] 2012
Georgia 1 0.2 Survey of Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases [25] 2010
*Kazakhstan** 2.8 0 GATS [27] 2014
Kyrgyzstan* 10.1 0.1 STEPS [26] 2013
Poland 1 0.1 GATS [27] 2009
*Romania 0.4 0.2 GATS [27] 2011
Slovakia* 1.9 0.8 Tobacco and Health Education Survey [25] 2014
Uzbekistan* 23.2 0.2 STEPS [26] 2014
Europe (region C) Latvia* 0.1 0 Health Behaviour among Latvian Adult Population [25] 2014
Lithuania 1.2 0.2 SEBS [33] 2012
Moldova* 0.1 0 DHS [29] 2013
Russia* 0.8 0.1 GATS [27] 2016
Ukraine* 0.4 0 GATS [27] 2017
South East Asia (region B) Indonesia* 3.9 4.8 Basic Health Research [25] 2013
Sri Lanka* 26 5.3 STEPS [26] 2014
Thailand 1.1 5.2 GATS [27] 2011
South East Asia (region D) Bangladesh* 16.2 24.8 GATS [27] 2017
Bhutan* 26.5 11 STEPS [26] 2014
India* 29.6 12.8 GATS [27] 2017
Maldives* 3.9 1.4 STEPS [26] 2011
Myanmar* 62.2 24.1 STEPS [26] 2014
Nepal* 31.3 4.8 STEPS [26] 2013
Timor Leste* 16.1 26.8 National survey for non-communicable disease risk factors and injuries [34] 2014
Western Pacific (region A) Australia* 0.6 0.3 National Drug Strategy Household Survey [25] 2013
Brunei Darussalam** 1.3 2.7 Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey on Non-communicable Diseases [25] 2014–15
Western Pacific (region B) Cambodia* 0.8 8.6 National Adult Tobacco Survey of Cambodia [25] 2014
China 0.7 0 GATS [27] 2010
Lao People’s Democratic Republic* 0.5 8.6 National Adult Tobacco Survey [25] 2015
Malaysia* 20.4 0.8 National Health And Morbidity Survey [25] 2015
Marshall Islands** 13.7 4 STEPS [26] 2002
Micronesia 22.4 3 STEPS [26] 2002
Mongolia* 0.8 0.2 STEPS [26] 2015
Niue** 0.3 0.2 STEPS [26] 2011
Philippines* 2.7 0.7 GATS [27] 2015
Vietnam* 0.8 2 GATS [27] 2015
  1. CTADS Canadian Tobacco Alcohol and Drugs Survey, DHS the Demographic and Health Surveys, ICS Individual Country Survey, GATS Global Adult Tobacco Survey, SEBS The Special Europe Barometer Survey, STEPS STEPwise approach to Surveillance, WHO World Health Organization
  2. aPopulations of St Kitts and Nevis are tiny and unlikely to affect our estimates
  3. *Countries included in the earlier paper (n = 55), but with updated values
  4. **New countries not included in the earlier paper (n = 12)