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Table 2 Associations between pre-pregnancy BMI (per 5-unit increase) and PPD at 6–8 weeks postpartum (n = 1583)

From: Evaluation of antenatal risk factors for postpartum depression: a secondary cohort analysis of the cluster-randomised GeliS trial

Covariate Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Pre-pregnancy BMI 1.25 (1.10–1.44)* 1.23 (1.07–1.41)** 1.23 (1.07–1.41)** 1.23 (1.08–1.41)**
Age 0.96 (0.93–1.00)* 0.99 (0.95–1.03) 0.99 (0.96–1.02) 1.00 (0.97–1.04)
Group allocation 1.34 (0.90–2.02) 1.38 (0.93–2.05) 1.39 (0.95–2.05) 1.39 (0.93–2.09)
Married   0.62 (1.06–1.99)* 0.66 (0.50–0.88)* 0.70 (0.54–0.91)*
Lower educational level   1.46 (0.48–0.80)** 1.40 (1.00–1.96)* 1.41 (1.02–1.94)*
Parity
 1   0.75 (0.49–1.14) 0.74 (0.51–1.08) 0.73 (0.51–1.04)
 ≥ 2   0.80 (0.45–1.41) 0.74 (0.42–1.31) 0.66 (0.37–1.20)
Alcohol intake    1.18 (0.86–1.64) 1.21 (0.86–1.69)
Low level of physical activity°    0.99 (0.73–1.34) 0.97 (0.72–1.30)
Smoking    1.81 (0.95–3.44) 1.59 (0.82–3.10)
Gestational diabetes mellitus    1.17 (0.84–1.65) 1.23 (0.90–1.70)
Antenatal history of anxiety/depressive symptoms°°     3.42 (2.42–4.82)***
  1. Depicted are odds ratios (ORs) along with the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated by multivariable logistic regression models
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < .0001
  3. °Assessed by the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) before the end of the 12th week of gestation
  4. °°Assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety (PHQ)-4 before the end of the 12th week of gestation
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