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Table 4 Associations between (excessive) GWG and PPD at 6–8 weeks postpartum (n = 1583)

From: Evaluation of antenatal risk factors for postpartum depression: a secondary cohort analysis of the cluster-randomised GeliS trial

Covariate Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
GWG (excessive vs. non-excessive) 3.91 (0.41–36.90) 4.31 (0.43–42.70) 3.99 (0.42–37.90) 3.48 (0.35–34.94)
Pre-pregnancy BMI 1.07 (1.01–1.12)* 1.07 (1.01–1.13)* 1.06 (1.01–1.12)* 1.06 (1.00–1.12)
Excessive GWG * pre-pregnancy BMI 0.96 (0.88–1.05) 0.96 (0.88–1.05) 0.96 (0.88–1.05) 0.96 (0.88–1.05)
GWG (per 1-unit increase) 1.19 (1.00–1.43) 1.19 (0.98–1.45) 1.19 (0.98–1.44) 1.16 (0.94–1.44)
Pre-pregnancy BMI 1.12 (1.02–1.22)* 1.13 (1.03–1.24)* 1.12 (1.02–1.23)* 1.11 (1.00–1.23)*
GWG * pre-pregnancy BMI 0.99 (0.99–1.00) 0.99 (0.99–1.00) 1.00 (0.99–1.00) 1.00 (0.99–1.00)
  1. Depicted are odds ratios (ORs) along with the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated by multivariable logistic regression models
  2. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, GWG gestational weight gain, Excessive GWG as defined by the IOM
  3. Model 1: adjusted for pre-pregnancy BMI, interaction term of (excessive) GWG X pre-pregnancy BMI, age, and group allocation
  4. Model 2: model 1 + marital status, educational level, and parity
  5. Model 3: model 2 + smoking status, alcohol intake, low level of physical activity assessed by the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ), and gestational diabetes mellitus
  6. Model 4: model 3 + antenatal history of anxiety/depressive symptoms during early pregnancy assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety (PHQ)-4
  7. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < .0001
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