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Table 1 Effects of immune status on the course of viral infections, outcomes, and therapy

From: Could hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis be the core issue of severe COVID-19 cases?

  Normal immunity Immunodeficiency (primary or secondary) Immune disorder (genetic or acquired)
Response to infection Correct Insufficient Excessive
Course of viral infection Infection limitation and subsequent elimination Disseminated, systemic or chronic viral infection Disseminated or systemic inflammation (i.e., HLH, CRS)
Consequences Recovery Single or multi-organ failure Multi-organ failure
Potential interventions Vaccinations
Antiviral drugs
Antiviral drugs
Intravenous immunoglobulins
  1. Abbreviations: CRS cytokine release syndrome, HLH hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis