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Table 2 Values for disease states and heath utilisation rates used in economic model. Mean and 95% confidence interval (CI) or proportions are given

From: Seasonal influenza vaccination in Kenya: an economic evaluation using dynamic transmission modelling

Item Measure Value Distribution Reference
Disease states
 Proportion of influenza cases that develop any clinical symptoms Mean (95% CI) 0.669 (0.583–0.745) Normal [27]
 Proportion of influenza cases that develop upper respiratory tract symptoms/mild illness Mean (95% CI) 0.588 (0.455–0.708) Normal [27]
 Proportion of influenza cases that develop lower respiratory tract symptoms/severe illness Mean (95% CI) 0.210 (0.140–0.303) Normal [27]
Proportion of influenza cases with severe illness that die while hospitalised
< 1 year Mean (95% CI) 0.0274 (0–0.0616) Truncated normal Influenza SARI surveillance dataset (2010–2018)
1–5 years Mean (95% CI) 0.0091 (0–0.0322)
6–14 years Mean (95% CI) 0.0108 (0–0.0902)
15–20 years Mean (95% CI) 0 (0–0.1116)
20–49 years Mean (95% CI) 0.0331 (0–0.0818)
  ≥ 50 years Mean (95% CI) 0.1818 (0.0909–0.3080)
All ages Mean (95% CI) 0.0200 (0.0035–0.0373)
Proportion of deaths due to a respiratory illness that occur in a health facility
  < 1 year Mean (95% CI) 0.2794 (0.2451–0.3140) Normal Siaya health demographic and surveillance site dataset (2010–2016)
1–5 years Mean (95% CI) 0.2899 (0.2471–0.3349)
6–14 years Mean (95% CI) 0.4361 (0.3534–0.5278)
15–20 years Mean (95% CI) 0.5250 (0.3750–0.6795)
20–49 years Mean (95% CI) 0.5067 (0.4626–0.5525)
  ≥ 50 years Mean (95% CI) 0.2715 (0.2421–0.3012)
All ages Mean (95% CI) 0.3287 (0.3106–0.3474)
Health care utilisation events
 Proportion of symptomatic influenza cases who attend outpatient clinic
0–5 years Mean (95% CI) 0.475 (0.39–0.60) Normal [29]
6–12 years Mean (95% CI) 0.118 (0.09–0.17)
13–17 years Mean (95% CI) 0.088 (0.06–0.13)
18–24 years Mean (95% CI) 0.035 (0.02–0.08)
25–44 years Mean (95% CI) 0.034 (0.02–0.07)
45–64 years Mean (95% CI) 0.027 (0.01–0.05)
   ≥ 65 years Mean (95% CI) 0.036 (0.02–0.07)
 Proportion of symptomatic influenza cases who are hospitalised
0–5 years Mean (95% CI) 0.0102 (0.0089–0.0117) Normal [29]
6–12 years Mean (95% CI) 0.0007 (0.0006–0.0010)
13–17 years Mean (95% CI) 0.0006 (0.0004–0.0011)
18–24 years Mean (95% CI) 0.0008 (0.0006–0.0010)
25–44 years Mean (95% CI) 0.0021 (0.0018–0.0024)
45–64 years Mean (95% CI) 0.0026 (0.0020–0.0033)
   ≥ 65 years Mean (95% CI) 0.0033 (0.0025–0.0044)
Proportion of outpatient influenza cases who purchased medication prior to clinic visit Proportion 0.718 Fixed value [30]
Proportion of hospitalised influenza cases who sought care after discharge from hospital Proportion 0.105 Fixed value [30]
Proportion of non-medically attended influenza cases where household members missed work due to illness* Proportion Not known
Proportion of outpatient influenza cases where household members missed work due to illness Proportion 0.518 Fixed value [30]
Proportion of hospitalised influenza cases where household members missed work due to illness Proportion 0.848 Fixed value [30]
Proportion of non-medically attended influenza cases where household members paid for childcare during illness* Proportion Not known
Proportion of outpatient influenza cases where household members paid for childcare during illness Proportion 0.18 Fixed value [30]
Proportion of hospitalised influenza cases where household members paid for childcare during illness Proportion 0.29 Fixed value [30]
  1. *These items were not included in the model as the values were unknown and difficult to estimate in the case of non-medically attended illness