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Table 3 Cost of influenza-associated illness in US dollars showing year of valuation

From: Seasonal influenza vaccination in Kenya: an economic evaluation using dynamic transmission modelling

Type of cost Measure Value in USD Year Distribution Source
Direct medical costs
 Facility based medical costs among influenza cases attending outpatient clinic Mean (SD) 4.34 (1.30) 2014 Normal [30]
 Facility based medical costs among hospitalised influenza cases Mean (SD) 59.19 (59.39) 2014 Normal [30]
 Health care costs after discharge among hospitalised influenza cases who sought care after discharge Mean (SD) 3.28 (6.19)   Normal [30]
 Influenza vaccine purchase costs per dose (varied in sensitivity analysis) Fixed 3 2018 Fixed value Assumption
 Vaccine administration cost per dose
 Supply chain cost per dose from national level to the health facility Mean 0.43 2012 Fixed value [31]
 Provision of immunisation services at the health facility Mean (SD) 1.0 (0.72) 2012 Normal [31]
Health care related costs
 Transportation costs among influenza cases attending outpatient clinic Mean (SD) 0.40 (0.87) 2014 Normal [30]
 Transportation costs among hospitalised influenza cases Mean (SD) 5.03 (8.32) 2014 Normal [30]
 Transportation costs to receive vaccine at health facility Man (SD) 0.20 (0.435) 2014 Normal Assumption*
 Health care costs prior to outpatient visit among influenza cases who purchased medication before the outpatient visit Mean (SD) 1.39 (3.90) 2014 Normal [30]
Indirect costs
 Lost wages among influenza cases not seeking formal health care for mild illness Fixed 0 Fixed value Assumption
 Lost wages among influenza cases attending outpatient visit who report that household members missed work Mean (SD) 12.84 (27.17) 2014 Normal [30]
 Lost wages among hospitalised influenza cases who report that household members missed work Mean (SD) 42.02 (41.54) 2014 Normal [30]
 Lost wages among those not hospitalised with severe influenza illness Not known
 Childcare costs among influenza cases attending outpatient clinic who report household members paid for childcare Mean (SD) 0.07 (0.57) 2014 Normal [30]
 Childcare costs among hospitalised influenza cases who report household members paid for childcare Mean (SD) 0.11 (0.75) 2014 Normal [30]
 Childcare among those not hospitalised for severe influenza illness Not known
  1. *For this cost no data existed and an assumption was made that the cost would be half of the transportation costs for outpatient care
  2. In the case where no data was available for costs incurred by non-medically attended cases, these costs were not included in the model
  3. SD standard deviation