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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of colorectal cancer cases and their matched controls by sex in the EPIC nested case-control study

From: Circulating bilirubin levels and risk of colorectal cancer: serological and Mendelian randomization analyses

Parameters Men Women
Case Control P Case Control P
N 658 658   728 728  
Age at blood collection (years) 58.6 (7.1) 58.5 (7.1) 0.9 58.1 (7.7) 58.0 (7.7) 0.9
Follow-up from blood collection (years) 4.3 (2.5)    4.3 (2.5)   
Weight (kg) 82.5 (12.1) 80.4 (11.1) 0.001 68.5 (12.4) 66.8 (10.8) 0.007
Height (cm) 173.8 (6.8) 173.4 (6.8) 0.3 161.5 (6.5) 160.8 (6.5) 0.03
BMI (kg/m2) 27.3 (3.8) 26.7 (3.3) 0.01 26.3 (4.7) 25.9 (4.2) 0.08
UCB (μmol/L) 4.3 (2.6) 4.0 (2.2) 0.02 3.2 (1.8) 3.4 (1.9) 0.08
Frequency of main SNP (rs6431625) (n, %)    0.1    0.2
 TT genotype (wild-type) 163 (36) 147 (41)   219 (39) 159 (35)  
 TC genotype 216 (48) 160 (45)   258 (46) 218 (48)  
 CC genotype 75 (17) 50 (14)   83 (15) 74 (16)  
Smoking status (n, %)    0.2    > 0.9
 Never 156 (24) 185 (28)   426 (59) 428 (59)  
 Former 310 (47) 278 (42)   160 (22) 159 (22)  
 Current 180 (27) 184 (28)   138 (19) 137 (19)  
Physical activity (n, %)    0.3    0.1
 Inactive 157 (24) 155 (24)   207 (28) 170 (23)  
 Moderately inactive 191 (29) 184 (28)   248 (34) 269 (37)  
 Moderately active 159 (24) 137 (21)   154 (21) 144 (20)  
 Active 143 (22) 169 (26)   116 (16) 140 (19)  
Education (n, %)    0.1    0.9
 None 39 (6) 39 (6)   43 (6) 40 (5)  
 Primary school completed 227 (35) 241 (37)   238 (33) 258 (35)  
 Technical/professional school 154 (23) 177 (27)   170 (23) 166 (23)  
 Secondary school 84 (13) 54 (8)   141 (19) 135 (19)  
 Longer education (incl. university deg.) 139 (21) 131 (20)   104 (14) 111 (15)  
 Unknown 9 (1) 12 (2)   27 (4) 15 (2)  
Menopause stage (n, %)       0.6
 Pre-menopausal     85 (12) 90 (12)  
 Post-menopausal     507 (70) 515 (71)  
 Peri-menopausal     98 (13) 95 (13)  
 Surgical postmen (bilateral ovariectomy)     38 (5) 28 (4)  
Ever use of HT (n, %)       0.8
 No     533 (73) 526 (72)  
 Yes     165 (23) 174 (24)  
Daily dietary intake, median (5th, 95th percentile)
 Energy (kcal) 2286 (1383, 3558) 2278 (1410, 3488) 0.8 1870 (1093, 2906) 1860 (1191, 2850) 0.7
 Alcohol (g) 15 (0, 80) 13 (0, 71) 0.04 3 (0, 33) 4 (0, 33) 0.6
 Red meat (g) 51 (8, 145) 49 (7, 135) 0.4 38 (4, 105) 40 (3, 105) 0.9
 Processed meat (g) 34 (4, 111) 32 (2, 111) 0.1 21 (1, 71) 20 (1,68) 0.7
 Fiber (g) 23 (12, 38) 23 (12, 40) 0.2 21 (12, 35) 22 (12, 34) 0.1
 Dairy products (g) 257 (36, 765) 282 (43, 767) 0.1 299 (50, 801) 324 (63, 813) 0.02
Country (n, %)    > 0.9    > 0.9
 France     40 (5) 40 (5)  
 Italy 77 (12) 77 (12)   108 (15) 108 (15)  
 Spain 86 (13) 86 (13)   79 (11) 79 (11)  
 UK 123 (19) 123 (19)   125 (17) 125 (17)  
 The Netherlands 23 (3) 23 (3)   147 (20) 147 (20)  
 Greece 21 (3) 21 (3)   19 (3) 19 (3)  
 Germany 120 (18) 120 (18)   64 (9) 64 (9)  
 Sweden 44 (7) 44 (7)   30 (4) 30 (4)  
 Denmark 164 (25) 164 (25)   105 (14) 105 (14)  
 Norway     11 (2) 11 (2)  
Fasting status (n, %)    > 0.9    > 0.9
 No 324 (50) 324 (50)   361 (51) 360 (51)  
 Inbetween 141 (22) 140 (22)   139 (19) 139 (19)  
 Yes 185 (28) 185 (28)   215 (30) 215 (30)  
  1. Values are means (SD) unless stated otherwise. Categorical variables are expressed as n (%) and continuous variables as means (SD) or medians (5, 95%). Paired T test (mean comparison) or Wilcoxon rank sum test for dietary intakes and chi-square test for categorical variables were used to calculate the P value. Number of missing values (cases/controls): physical activity (12/18), smoking status (16/15), education (11/7), and HT (30/28). Missing values were not excluded in percentage calculations; therefore, the percent’s sum across subgroups is not 100%
  2. Abbreviations: N number, UCB unconjugated bilirubin, BMI body mass index, HT hormone therapy
  3. A study participant was considered active if he/she reported a leisure time activity of at least 1 h per week in at least one season
  4. Education level was defined as high in case of final secondary school examination and otherwise as low. More details have been published previously [27, 28]