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Table 2 Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for the association between bilirubin levels and CRC risk

From: Circulating bilirubin levels and risk of colorectal cancer: serological and Mendelian randomization analyses

  Men Women
  Odds ratio (95% CI)   Odds ratio (95% CI)
n cases/controls Crude Adjusted n cases/controls Crude Adjusted
Nested case-control study EPIC (1-SD)
 log-UCB 658/658 1.13 (1.00–1.28) 1.19 (1.04–1.36) 728/728 0.86 (0.77–0.97) 0.86 (0.76–0.97)
P   0.05 0.01   0.01 0.02
MR approach for total bilirubin (1-SD)*
 rs6431625 Wald estimate§ 28,270/22,204   1.07 (1.02–1.12) 24,568/23,736   1.01 (0.96–1.06)
P    0.006    0.73
 114 SNPs likelihood-based MR estimate§ 28,270/22,204   0.89 (0.80–1.00) 24,568/23,736   1.00 (0.89–1.11)
P    0.05    0.96
  1. Abbreviations: n number, P P value, CI confidence interval, log-UCB log-transformed unconjugated bilirubin
  2. EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition): Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between log-transformed UCB levels (log-UCB), standardized per one standard deviation (1-SD) increments, and CRC risk. The crude model was conditioned on the matching factors including study center, age at blood collection (1 year), fasting status and time (3 h intervals) at blood collection, among women, additionally by menopausal status (pre-, peri-, and post-menopausal or surgically menopausal), and hormone therapy (HT) (yes, no). The multivariable model was adjusted for level of education (none/primary school, technical/professional, secondary school, university degree), BMI, height, smoking status (never, former, current smoker), physical activity (inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, active), alcohol consumption (g/day), dietary intakes of fiber (g/day), red meat (g/day), processed meats (g/day), dairy products (g/day), and total energy intake (kcal/day)
  3. *MR approach: Mendelian randomization approach; data from the Colon Cancer Familiar Registry (CCFR), the Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT) study, and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO)
  4. §Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for colorectal cancer per 1-SD increment in bilirubin levels estimated through a likelihood-based MR approach