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Table 1 Characteristics of the participants according to delivery year

From: The trend of caesarean birth rate changes in China after ‘universal two-child policy’ era: a population-based study in 2013–2018

Characteristics 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
N 1,360,384 1,813,753 1,552,952 1,706,939 1,709,637 1,254,380
Age
 20– 449,607 (33.1) 482,363 (26.6) 391,365 (25.2) 350,263 (20.5) 283,488 (16.6) 205,376 (16.4)
 25– 648,870 (47.7) 948,058 (52.3) 818,991 (52.7) 884,704 (51.8) 770,323 (45.1) 563,423 (44.9)
 30– 199,323 (14.7) 305,331 (16.8) 257,309 (16.6) 339,758 (19.9) 419,649 (24.6) 337,983 (26.9)
 ≥ 35 62,584 (4.6) 78,001 (4.3) 85,287 (5.5) 132,214 (7.8) 236,177 (13.8) 147,598 (11.8)
Higher education
 Yes 436,700 (32.1) 625,611 (34.5) 573,043 (36.9) 708,332 (41.5) 715,633 (41.9) 581,466 (46.4)
 No 891,977 (65.6) 1,134,400 (62.5) 927,246 (59.7) 926,811 (54.3) 913,797 (53.5) 600,435 (47.9)
 NA 31,707 (2.3) 53,742 (3.0) 52,663 (3.4) 71,796 (4.2) 80,207 (4.7) 72,479 (5.8)
BMI
 Underweight 191,759 (14.1) 267,236 (14.7) 227,708 (14.7) 232,675 (13.6) 209,234 (12.2) 159,800 (12.7)
 Normal weight 876,038 (64.4) 1,147,895 (63.3) 979,551 (63.1) 1,051,466 (61.6) 1,026,015 (60.0) 750,469 (59.8)
 Overweight 169,411 (12.4) 228,695 (12.6) 200,350 (12.9) 234,272 (13.7) 255,224 (14.9) 183,551 (14.6)
 Obese 102,921 (7.6) 153,108 (8.4) 133,190 (8.6) 176,100 (10.3) 207,396 (12.1) 152,599 (12.2)
NA 20,255 (1.5) 16,819 (0.9) 12,153 (0.8) 12,426 (0.7) 11,768 (0.7) 7961 (0.6)
Region
 Northeast 17,087 (1.3) 21,362 (1.2) 12,880 (0.8) 17,295 (1.0) 16,405 (1.0) 13,631 (1.1)
 North 70,111 (5.2) 132,151 (7.3) 83,421 (5.4) 113,796 (6.7) 99,505 (5.8) 72,659 (5.8)
 Northwest 84,483 (6.2) 104,363 (5.8) 92,596 (6.0) 101,283 (5.9) 108,509 (6.4) 88,936 (7.1)
 East 254,361 (18.7) 479,177 (26.4) 339,419 (21.9) 414,585 (24.3) 423,651 (24.8) 316,769 (25.3)
 Central 554,208 (40.7) 657,323 (36.2) 637,957 (41.1) 656,494 (38.5) 625,204 (36.6) 441,871 (35.2)
 South 250,558 (18.4) 275,153 (15.2) 253,124 (16.3) 260,102 (15.2) 268,554 (15.7) 180,011 (14.4)
 Southwest 129,576 (9.5) 144,224 (8.0) 133,555 (8.6) 143,384 (8.4) 167,809 (9.8) 140,503 (11.2)
Nationality
 Han 1,242,454 (91.3) 1,662,843 (91.7) 1,412,724 (91.0) 1,562,677 (91.6) 1,556,050 (91.0) 1,129,277 (90.0)
 Others 102,498 (7.5) 132,018 (7.3) 122,268 (7.9) 120,483 (7.1) 131,382 (7.7) 100,268 (8.0)
 NA 15,432 (1.1) 18,892 (1.0) 17,960 (1.2) 23,779 (1.4) 22,205 (1.3) 24,835 (2.0)
Adverse pregnancy outcomes in previous deliveries
 Yes 224,699 (16.5) 298,746 (16.5) 241,003 (15.5) 284,002 (16.6) 337,703 (19.8) 253,686 (20.2)
 No 1,124,249 (82.6) 1,505,067 (83.0) 1,302,460 (83.9) 1,414,285 (82.9) 1,363,499 (79.8) 994,880 (79.3)
 NA 11,436 (0.8) 9940 (0.6) 9489 (0.6) 8652 (0.5) 8435 (0.5) 5814 (0.5)
Parity
 Primipara 1,004,419 (73.8) 1,254,131 (69.2) 1,036,872 (66.8) 1,026,506 (60.1) 800,238 (46.8) 610,610 (48.7)
 Multipara 343,741 (25.3) 548,999 (30.3) 506,195 (32.6) 671,455 (39.3) 900,763 (52.7) 637,945 (50.9)
 NA 12,224 (0.9) 10,623 (0.6) 9885 (0.6) 8978 (0.5) 8636 (0.5) 5825 (0.5)
Full-term births
 Yes 1,234,240 (90.7) 1,659,942 (91.5) 1,441,070 (92.8) 1,593,940 (93.4) 1,629,940 (95.3) 1,216,586 (97.0)
 No 126,143 (9.3) 153,809 (8.5) 111,882 (7.2) 112,999 (6.6) 79,696 (4.7) 37,794 (3.0)
 NA 1 (0) 2 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0) 0 (0)
Number of foetus
 Singleton 1,352,364 (99.4) 1,802,094 (99.4) 1,543,985 (99.4) 1,697,149 (99.4) 1,700,026 (99.4) 1,246,359 (99.4)
 Multiple 8019 (0.6) 11,657 (0.6) 8967 (0.6) 9790 (0.6) 9602 (0.6) 8021 (0.6)
 NA 1 (0) 2 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 9 (0) 0 (0)
  1. Data are n (%). NA not available, BMI body mass index. BMI was calculated using weight/height2 (kg/m2). BMI < 18.5 was considered underweight, BMI ≥ 18.5 and < 24 were considered normal, BMI ≥ 24 and < 28 were considered overweight, and BMI ≥ 28 was considered obese according to the Chinese population standards. Higher education level was defined as senior high school, college, or postgraduate. Primiparity and multiparity were defined as parity of 0 and ≥ 1, respectively