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Table 1 Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics of the participants

From: Increased frequency of intentional weight loss associated with reduced mortality: a prospective cohort analysis

   Frequency of weight loss attempts
  Analysis cohort (n = 161,738) Unintentional WL (n = 26,178) Never (n = 44,054) 1–2 (n = 33,114) 3–4 (n = 19,465) 5–6 (n = 13,537) 7–8 (n = 9159) 9–10 (n = 6054) 11+ (n = 10,177)
  % % % % % % % % %
Age at FUQ (yrs.; mean [SD]) 70.7 [5.3] 72.2 [5.0] 71.3 [5.3] 70.7 [5.3] 70.2 [5.3] 69.7 [5.3] 69.5 [5.3] 68.9 [5.2] 68.3 [5.1]
Average weight loss per attempt (lbs; mean [SD]) 6.1 [6.9] 0 0 9.4 [6.8] 10.9 [5.9] 11.6 [4.9] 11.3 [4.7] 11.4 [3.8] 13.3 [3.1]
Female (%) 37.9 42.8 25.1 38.3 40.7 42.5 44.0 48.2 56.5
Weight change
Weight losers 28.7 100.0 0.0 28.7 22.7 19.5 17.9 16.1 10.6
Weight maintainers 50.7 0.0 79.6 52.8 54.3 52.4 51.2 48.0 40.5
Weight gainers 20.6 0.0 20.4 18.6 23.0 28.0 30.9 35.8 48.9
Race/ethnicity (%)
Non-Hispanic White 92.6 92.5 91.2 93.2 93.1 93.4 93.4 94.3 93.2
Non-Hispanic Black 3.4 2.4 3.9 3.3 3.3 3.5 3.3 3.0 3.7
Hispanic 1.6 1.5 2.0 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.0 1.3
Asian, PI or AI/AN 1.5 2.7 1.8 1.2 1.2 0.7 1.0 0.9 0.7
Missing 1.0 0.9 1.1 0.9 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.1
Education level (%)
Less than 8 years, 8–11  yrs. 3.9 3.9 5.6 3.4 2.9 2.9 3.2 3.1 3.0
12 yrs. or completed high school 18.0 18.2 20.5 17.4 16.6 16.4 15.2 15.9 17.0
Post-high school 9.8 9.5 10.8 9.3 9.3 9.2 8.9 9.8 9.7
Some college 23.0 21.5 22.1 22.8 23.1 23.7 24.8 26.0 27.3
College and post graduate 43.3 44.9 38.5 45.3 46.3 45.8 46.1 43.7 41.1
Missing 2.1 2.1 2.4 1.9 1.9 2.0 1.8 1.5 1.8
Starting BMI (%)
18.524.9 kg/m2 38.3 52.6 42.2 38.4 34.0 29.7 28.9 24.8 20.5
25.029.9 kg/m2 25.2 13.8 24.5 26.4 29.0 30.7 31.3 31.8 29.0
30.034.9 kg/m2 4.8 1.3 3.0 4.5 5.4 7.3 7.9 9.7 12.8
35.0+ kg/m2 31.7 32.4 30.3 30.7 31.6 32.3 31.9 33.7 37.7
Reported medical conditions (%)
None 6.1 8.6 6.9 5.7 5.3 4.7 4.4 4.1 3.1
1 to 2 33.8 39.1 35.8 34.2 31.6 30.1 29.9 28.3 26.1
3 to 4 36.7 34.0 36.1 37.8 38.2 37.5 38.5 37.0 37.6
5+ 23.4 18.3 21.2 22.3 24.9 27.7 27.2 30.6 33.1
Missing 0.03 0.02 0.04 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.05
Physical activity (Met-hrs./day [quintiles]; %)
0 to 17.9 24.9 22.4 26.9 24.0 23.6 24.7 23.6 25.2 28.6
17.9 to 29.3 23.3 22.9 22.9 23.7 24.4 23.5 23.3 22.2 22.7
29.3 to 48.4 22.7 22.8 21.7 23.9 23.4 23.1 23.3 23.2 20.7
48.4 to 78.5 19.4 20.9 18.7 19.2 19.5 19.6 20.1 20.1 18.1
78.5+ 9.1 10.1 9.0 8.6 8.6 8.8 9.3 9.0 9.6
Missing 0.7 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.5
Sitting time (hrs./day [quintiles]; %)
0.0 to 4.5 23.5 29.3 24.5 24.0 22.1 20.1 19.7 18.1 16.2
4.5 to 6.5 45.6 44.0 45.2 46.2 47.1 47.5 46.2 45.7 43.1
6.5 to 8.5 17.8 14.4 16.8 17.4 18.5 19.6 19.6 21.3 24.3
8.5 to 12.5 2.5 2.2 2.5 2.5 2.3 2.6 3.0 3.0 3.4
12.5+ 2.9 2.2 3.0 2.5 2.7 2.7 3.7 3.6 4.7
Missing 7.8 8.0 8.0 7.5 7.4 7.6 7.8 8.3 8.2
HEI-2015 total score (quintiles; %)
24.0 to 60.0 21.4 20.5 27.0 19.9 18.5 18.1 18.3 18.0 19.4
60.0 to 66.3 20.4 18.6 21.8 19.7 20.4 20.1 20.3 20.3 21.1
66.3 to 71.2 19.8 18.7 19.0 20.1 20.6 20.7 20.7 20.9 20.9
71.2 to 76.2 19.4 19.3 16.9 20.0 20.7 21.4 20.8 21.2 20.9
76.2+ 19.0 22.9 15.4 20.2 19.7 19.8 19.8 19.6 17.8
Smoking status/dose (%)
Never 35.6 40.9 34.9 36.1 33.9 33.6 33.3 32.3 33.2
Former- ≤ 20 cigarettes/day 26.7 25.6 26.7 27.4 27.7 27.0 26.9 26.3 25.4
Former- > 20 cigarettes/day 23.2 15.4 23.1 22.9 25.1 27.0 27.4 28.9 28.8
Current- ≤ 20 cigarettes/day 3.2 5.2 3.2 2.9 2.9 2.6 2.2 2.5 2.5
Current- > 20 cigarettes/day 2.9 4.4 3.2 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.5 2.6 2.5
Missing 8.4 8.6 9.0 8.4 8.0 7.6 7.7 7.5 7.7
Self-reported overall health (%)
Excellent 13.0 16.4 11.9 14.0 13.2 12.1 11.8 11.6 8.3
Very good 36.3 37.3 35.8 38.3 37.4 36.0 34.9 33.9 30.8
Good 35.1 31.7 36.3 34.2 34.7 35.5 36.3 37.2 39.1
Fair 11.9 10.8 12.4 10.4 11.3 12.4 13.2 13.0 16.5
Poor 1.9 2.2 1.9 1.4 1.7 2.0 2.0 2.3 3.4
Missing 1.8 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.8 2.0 1.8 2.0 2.0
Age at retirement (yrs.; %)
Not retired 18.6 15.5 16.5 18.7 19.9 20.7 21.7 23.5 25.0
< 50 2.2 2.4 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.5 2.8
50 to 55 5.1 4.9 5.0 4.9 5.1 5.2 5.0 5.5 5.8
55 to 60 18.7 17.7 18.8 18.5 18.7 19.7 19.5 19.6 19.0
60 to 65 32.3 33.0 33.6 32.6 31.9 31.1 30.4 30.1 29.3
65 to 70 15.6 17.7 16.3 15.8 15.2 14.0 14.2 12.9 12.3
≥ 70 4.7 6.1 4.8 4.6 4.3 4.5 4.3 3.4 3.1
Missing 2.8 2.7 2.9 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.8
Marital status (%)
Married or living as married 70.7 67.9 75.6 71.1 69.8 69.6 68.5 67.4 62.3
Widowed 9.8 11.8 8.5 9.7 9.8 9.4 9.7 9.6 11.0
Divorced 12.9 12.9 10.0 12.5 14.0 14.4 15.1 16.3 19.1
Separated 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.9 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.3
Never married 5.0 5.8 4.2 5.2 5.0 5.2 5.3 5.1 5.8
Missing 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5
Age at menopause (yrs.; %)
< 40 6.4 5.9 4.4 6.0 6.8 7.4 7.7 9.6 11.9
40 to 45 5.7 6.3 3.9 5.5 6.2 6.3 6.8 6.4 8.5
45 to 50 9.0 10.7 6.2 9.2 9.3 9.7 10.3 10.8 12.4
50 to 55 12.1 14.8 7.8 12.8 12.9 13.6 13.4 14.3 16.0
≥ 55 2.6 3.2 1.7 2.7 3.0 2.8 2.9 3.4 3.4
Still menstruating 1.8 1.5 0.8 1.8 2.2 2.4 2.5 3.2 3.8
Male 62.1 57.2 74.9 61.7 59.4 57.5 56.0 51.8 43.5
Missing 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.5
  1. PI Pacific Islander, AI American Indian, AN Alaskan Native, BMI body mass index, HEI healthy eating index, WL weight loss, hrs. hours, yrs. years; FUQ, follow-up questionnaire, SD standard deviation