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Table 3 Comparison of the characteristics of COVID-19 between children and adults

From: Epidemiological and clinical features of pediatric COVID-19

Classification Children Adults [5, 6, 14]
Exposure to source of transmission Family cluster (may have maternal-fetal vertical transmission) Multiple ways (local residents of Wuhan, recently been to Wuhan, contacted with people from Wuhan and wildlife)
Incubation period (days)
 Median (range) 9 (0–20) 4 (0–24)
 Quartile (Q1–Q3) 6–13 2–7
Clinical diagnosis
 Asymptomatic 5.9% 1%
  Abnormal chest radiograph 30% No data available
 Mild/moderate 99.3% 81%
 Severe 0.6% 14%
 Critical 0.3% 5%
Clinical symptoms and signs
 Fever 77.9% 43.1%
 Cough 32.4% 67.7%
 Other Lacrimation, stuffy nose, sneezing, sore throat, dyspnea, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, dizziness and headache and myalgia, fatigue, body discomfort Conjunctival congestion, nasal congestion, headache, sore throat, dyspnea, sputum production, fatigue, hemoptysis, shortness of breath, nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, myalgia or arthralgia, chill, throat congestion, tonsil swelling, enlargement of lymph nodes, rash
Coexisting disorders Congenital heart Hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, hepatitis B infection, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic renal diseases, immunodeficiency, cancer, cerebrovascular diseases, neurological manifestations
Complications Heart failure, myocardial injury, liver injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, shock, acute kidney injury Septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute kidney injury, acute cardiac injury, disseminated intravascular coagulation, rhabdomyolysis, pneumonia, secondary infection
Treatment Symptomatic treatment, antiviral treatment, TCM, antibiotic treatment, nutritional support therapy, interferon therapy, immunoglobulin therapy, glucocorticoid therapy, mechanical ventilation Symptomatic treatment, antiviral treatment, antibiotic treatment, antifungal medications, corticosteroids, immunoglobulin therapy, TCM, interferon therapy, noninvasive ventilation, invasive mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT)
Clinical outcomes
 Death 0 2.3%
Time from onset to cure (days)
 Median (range) 16 (6–39) No data available
 Quartile (Q1–Q3) 13–21 No data available