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Table 1 Characteristics of complex systems with corresponding markers and test procedures

From: Complexity in psychological self-ratings: implications for research and practice

Characteristic of complex system Marker Test
Memory • Dependency on past values
• Long-range temporal correlations
• Non-stationary temporal correlations
• Bartels rank test
• Inspect (partial) autocorrelation functions
• Time-varying autoregressive model
Regime shifts • Non-stationarity • KPSS test for level stationary time series
• Nonparametric change point analysis
Sensitive dependence on initial conditions • Limited predictive horizon • Forecast skill (Sugihara-May algorithm)