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Table 2 Regression estimates for association of Zip Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) level predictors with detected COVID-19 cases in New York City as at 5 April 2020.

From: An ecological study of socioeconomic predictors in detection of COVID-19 cases across neighborhoods in New York City

Predictors Univariable analysis Multivariable analysis (full) Multivariable analysis (sig. only) Stepwise backwards elimination
  Estimate 95% CI p value Estimate 95% CI p value Estimate 95% CI p value Estimate 95% CI p value
Demographic parameters             
Young1 0.0093 0.0057, 0.013 <0.001 0.0064 0.0020, 0.0108 0.005 0.0076 0.0034, 0.0117 0.001 0.0049 0.0012, 0.0085 0.009
Aged2 0.0072 −0.0116, −0.0027 0.002 −0.0002 −0.0050, 0.0046 0.915 −0.0010 –0.0054, 0.0035 0.668    
MFR3 0.0004 −0.0015, 0.0024 0.626 0.0023 0.0005, 0.0041 0.012     0.0024 0.0009, 0.0039 0.002
Race4 0.0027 −0.0035, −0.0020 <0.001 0.0018 −0.0027, −0.0009 <0.001 0.0014 −0.0023, −0.0004 0.005 0.0019 −0.0027, −0.0010 <0.001
Density5 0.0031 0.0012, 0.0049 0.002 0.0031 0.0013, 0.0049 0.001 0.0023 0.0005, 0.0040 0.013 0.0033 0.0016, 0.0050 <0.001
Economic parameters             
Gini6 0.2617 −0.2447, 0.7708 0.312 −0.2903 −0.7482, 0.1739 0.215     0.4830 −0.8884, −0.0699 0.022
Income7 0.0027 −0.0034, −0.0021 <0.001 0.0024 −0.0036, −0.0013 <0.001 0.0025 −0.0037, −0.0013 <0.001 0.0020 −0.0029, −0.0012 <0.001
Unemployment8 0.0146 0.0085, 0.021 <0.001 −0.0051 −0.0127, 0.0027 0.194 −0.0056 −0.0132, 0.0023 0.159 0.0076 −0.0146, −0.0005 0.037
Poverty9 0.0064 0.0046, 0.0082 <0.001 −0.0032 −0.0072, 0.0009 0.120 0.0047 −0.0084, −0.0010 0.014    
Health parameters             
Uninsured10 0.0154 0.0110, 0.0200 <0.001 0.0031 −0.0023, 0.0085 0.255 0.0064 0.0013, 0.0115 0.014    
Beds11 −0.014 −0.0306, 0.0023 0.090 0.0180 −0.0314, −0.0046 0.008     0.0198 −0.0326, −0.0071 0.002
  1. 1Percentage of population under 18
  2. 2Percentage of population 65+
  3. 3Males per 100 females
  4. 4Percentage of population that identify as white (alone or in combination with another race)
  5. 5Population density
  6. 6Gini index
  7. 7Median household income in $1,000s
  8. 8Percentage of working age population unemployed
  9. 9Percentage of population living below the poverty threshold
  10. 10Percentage of population uninsured
  11. 11 log(total number of hospital beds per 1000 people within 5 km)
  12. *Significant at α=0.05
  13. All predictors
  14. Only significant predictors from the univariable step