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Table 1 Demographics and clinical characteristics compared between the three outcome groups

From: Comorbidity between depression and anxiety: assessing the role of bridge mental states in dynamic psychological networks

  1. Comorbid disorders at the same NESDA wave (n = 143) 2. Depressive disorder only during NESDA (n = 40) 3. Anxiety disorder only during NESDA (n = 37) p value
Demographics
 Female, n (%)a 100 (69.9) 29 (72.5) 27 (73.0) 0.91
 Age, mean (SD)b 48.67 (11.1) 47.38 (14.1) 48.62 (13.3) 0.83
 Education, n (%)c     0.08
  1. Low 8 (5.6) 1 (2.5) 0 (0)  
  2. Intermediate 84 (58.7) 17 (42.5) 17 (45.9)  
  3. High 51 (35.7) 22 (55.0) 20 (54.1)  
 Born outside the Netherlands (%)c 8 (5.6) 1 (2.5) 4 (10.8) 0.33
 Marital status (%)c     0.84
  Never married 46 (32.2) 12 (30.0) 15 (40.5)  
  Currently married 64 (44.8) 21 (52.5) 17 (45.9)  
  Married living separated 2 (1.4) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
  Formerly married 31 (21.7) 7 (17.5) 5 (13.5)  
 Employment status—unemployed (%)a 33 (22.4) 3 (7.5) 3 (8.1) 0.03
Psychopathology
 Type of disorder
  Major depression (%) 143 (100.0) 38 (95) 0  
  Dysthymia (%) 67 (48.9) 7 (18.4) 0  
  Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (%) 89 (64.0) 0 12 (33.3)  
  Social anxiety disorder (%) 93 (66.4) 0 23 (65.7)  
  Panic with/without agoraphobia (%) 89 (63.3) 0 15(41.7)  
  Agoraphobia (%) 52 (38.2) 0 8 (22.2)  
 Recency* (%)a     < 0.001
  < 2 weeks  54 (37.8) 1(2.5)  8 (21.6)  
  2 weeks to < 1 month  11 (7.7) 0 1 (2.7)  
  1 to < 6 months 10 (6.9) 6 (17.5) 3 (32.4)  
  6 to 12 months 7 (4.9) 2 (5.0) 1 (2.7)  
  > 1 to 9 years# 61 (42.0) 31 (77.5) 24 (64.9)  
 Symptom severity mean (SD)b
  Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (IDS; range 0–84), mean (SD)b 22.42,3 ± 12.7 13.01 ± 9.4 11.31 ± 5.9 < 0.001
  Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI; range 0–63), mean (SD)b 11.72,3 ± 9.7 5.31 ± 5.8 7.01 ± 5.4 < 0.001
  Fear Questionnaire (FQ; range 0–120), mean (SD)b 21.72,3 ± 19.0 8.31 ± 11.7 15.31 ± 13.2 < 0.001
  1. aChi-squared test
  2. bAnalysis of variance (ANOVA)
  3. cFisher’s exact test
  4. 1,2,3Numbers refer to groups from which that group differs significantly
  5. *Established at the time of the interview; the EMA study started within 31 days of the interview
  6. #Number of individuals who only met criteria for a diagnosis at the first NESDA measurement; N=5 in comorbid group; N=10 in depression group; and N=12 in anxiety group