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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Non-malarial febrile illness: a systematic review of published aetiological studies and case reports from Africa, 1980–2015

Inclusion criteria Reporting on pathogens causing fever in human inpatients or outpatients
Studies conducted in the targeted geographical areas
Abstract and full text available in English or French
Samples tested from normally sterile sites1
Samples analysed in a laboratory setting
Total number of individuals tested is clearly stated for population-based studies (case reports and case series were categorised separately and did not need to meet this criterion)
Exclusion criteria Published before 1980
Primary focus on malaria, HIV, or tuberculosis
Non-clinical studies (descriptions of laboratory methods, modelling studies, economic evaluations, opinion pieces)
Drug or vaccine trial
Studies conducted in travellers
Other studies of disease not including laboratory identification of pathogens causing fever
  1. 1The definition of a confirmed diagnosis was restricted to pathogens detected in or cultured from samples from normally sterile sites (e.g. bacterial or fungal isolates cultured from the blood, cerebrospinal fluid, arthrocentesis or paracentesis fluid, etc., or virus or parasite detection in the blood or cerebrospinal fluid) or serological evidence of current or past infection