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Table 2 The top five most commonly reported pathogens in Eastern Africa, stratified by time period

From: Non-malarial febrile illness: a systematic review of published aetiological studies and case reports from Africa, 1980–2015

  1980 to ≤ 1990 1991 to ≤ 2000 2001 to ≤ 2010 2011 to ≤ 2015
Bacteria Typhoidal Salmonella (n = 5) Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 7) Non-typhoidal Salmonella (n = 30) Staphylococcus aureus (n = 29)
Non-typhoidal Salmonella (n = 4) Staphylococcus aureus (n = 7) Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 24) Non-typhoidal Salmonella (n = 28)
Borrelia spp. (n = 4) Escherichia coli (n = 7) Staphylococcus aureus (n = 22) Escherichia coli (n = 23)
Staphylococcus aureus (n = 3) Rickettsia typhi (n = 5) Escherichia coli (n = 22) Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 20)
Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 2) Haemophilus spp. (n = 5) Haemophilus spp. (n = 20) Klebsiella spp. (n = 13)
Viruses Rift Valley fever virus (n = 6) Rift Valley fever virus (n = 9) Ebola virus (n = 9) Dengue virus (n = 13)
Ebola virus (n = 5) Yellow fever virus (n = 5) Rift Valley fever virus (n = 7) Chikungunya virus (n = 12)
Chikungunya virus (n = 5) O’nyong-nyong virus (n = 3) Chikungunya virus (n = 4) Rift Valley fever virus (n = 11)
Wesselsbron virus (n = 4) West Nile virus (n = 2) Marburg virus (n = 2) Yellow fever virus (n = 9)
CCHF virus (n = 3) CCHF virus (n = 2) Dengue virus (n = 2) West Nile virus (n = 4)
Parasites Family Trypanosomatidae (n = 1) Toxocara spp. (n = 1) Wuchereria bancrofti (n = 1) Leishmania spp. (n = 1)
Trypanosoma spp. (n = 1) Babesia spp. (n = 1)
Leishmania spp. (n = 1)
Fungi Cryptococcus spp. (n = 1) Candida albicans (n = 2) Cryptococcus spp. (n = 2) Cryptococcus spp. (n = 3)
Candida spp. (n = 1) Fungus (n = 1) Candida spp. (n = 2)
Candida spp. (n = 1)
  1. CCHF Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus. No distinction has been made between case series, fever series, and seroprevalence studies. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the number of publications reporting the given microorganism. The complete list of the microorganisms reported in a given region and time period is provided in Additional file 2