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Table 3 The top five most commonly reported pathogens in Western Africa, stratified by time period

From: Non-malarial febrile illness: a systematic review of published aetiological studies and case reports from Africa, 1980–2015

  1980 to ≤ 1990 1991 to ≤ 2000 2001 to ≤ 2010 2011 to ≤ 2015
Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (n = 7) Staphylococcus aureus (n = 11) Staphylococcus aureus (n = 20) Staphylococcus aureus (n = 22)
Typhoidal Salmonella (n = 5) Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 9) Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 16) Escherichia coli (n = 21)
Klebsiella spp. (n = 4) Non-typhoidal Salmonella (n = 8) Escherichia coli (n = 16) Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 16)
Citrobacter spp. (n = 4) Neisseria meningitidis (n = 7) Klebsiella spp. (n = 11) Klebsiella spp. (n = 13)
Non-typhoidal Salmonella (n = 4) Escherichia coli (n = 5) Streptococcus spp. (n = 10) Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 12)
Viruses Yellow fever virus (n = 14) Yellow fever virus (n = 11) Yellow fever virus (n = 11) Ebola virus (n = 15)
Lassa virus (n = 12) Rift Valley fever virus (n = 3) Lassa virus (n = 6) Lassa virus (n = 11)
Rift Valley fever virus (n = 8) Lassa virus (n = 2) Rift Valley fever virus (n = 4) Rift Valley fever virus (n = 7)
CCHF virus (n = 7) Measles virus (n = 1) CCHF virus (n = 2) Dengue virus (n = 7)
Chikungunya virus (n = 3) CCHF virus (n = 1) Dengue virus (n = 2) Yellow fever virus (n = 5)
Parasites Loa loa (n = 1) Leishmania spp. (n = 1) Trypanosoma spp. (n = 1) Wuchereria bancrofti (n = 1)
Leishmania spp. (n = 1) Leishmania spp. (n = 1) Mansonella perstans (n = 1)
Fungi Candida spp. (n = 1) Candida spp. (n = 2)
Candida albicans (n = 1) Penicillium spp. (n = 1)
Cryptococcus spp. (n = 1)
Candida albicans (n = 1)
Aspergillus niger (n = 1)
  1. CCHF Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus. No distinction has been made between case series, fever series, and seroprevalence studies. Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of publications reporting the given microorganism. The complete list of the microorganisms reported in a given region and time period is provided in Additional file 2