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Table 4 The top five most commonly reported pathogens in Northern Africa, stratified by time period

From: Non-malarial febrile illness: a systematic review of published aetiological studies and case reports from Africa, 1980–2015

  1980 to ≤ 1990 1991 to ≤ 2000 2001 to ≤ 2010 2011 to ≤ 2015
Bacteria Non-typhoidal Salmonella (n = 3) Coxiella burnetii (n = 7) Staphylococcus aureus (n = 22) Escherichia coli (n = 18)
Rickettsia conorii (n = 3) Non-typhoidal Salmonella (n = 5) Escherichia coli (n = 14) Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 13)
Neisseria meningitidis (n = 3) Rickettsia conorii (n = 5) Rickettsia conorii (n = 11) Staphylococcus aureus (n = 10)
Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 2) Rickettsia typhi (n = 4) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 11) Staphylococcus, coagulase negative (n = 9)
Typhoidal Salmonella (n = 2) Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 3) Streptococcus spp. (n = 9) Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 7)
Viruses Rift Valley fever virus (n = 3) Rift Valley fever virus (n = 6) Hepatitis C virus (n = 3) Dengue virus (n = 8)
Hepatitis B virus (n = 2) West Nile virus (n = 3) Hepatitis B virus (n = 3) Yellow fever virus (n = 6)
Hepatitis A virus (n = 2) Sandfly fever Sicilian virus (n = 3) Hepatitis A virus (n = 3) Hepatitis C virus (n = 5)
West Nile virus (n = 1) Sandfly fever Naples virus (n = 3) West Nile virus (n = 2) West Nile virus (n = 3)
Sandfly fever Naples virus (n = 1) Hantaan virus (n = 2) Dengue virus (n = 2) Toscana virus (n = 3)
Parasites Leishmania spp. (n = 8) Leishmania spp. (n = 7) Leishmania spp. (n = 6)
Fasciola hepatica (n = 3) Schistosoma spp. (n = 2)
Toxoplasma spp. (n = 1)
Toxocara spp. (n = 1)
Taenia spp. (n = 1)
Fungi Aspergillus fumigatus (n = 2) Candida albicans (n = 4) Candida spp. (n = 5)
Candida spp. (n = 1) Candida spp. (n = 3) Candida albicans (n = 4)
Candida albicans (n = 1) Penicillium marneffei (n = 1) Candida parapsilosis (n = 2)
Mucor spp. (n = 1) Candida ciferrii (n = 2)
Histoplasma (n = 1) Blastoschizomyces pseudotrichosporon (n = 2)
  1. No distinction has been made between case series, fever series, and seroprevalence studies. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the number of publications reporting the given microorganism. The complete list of the microorganisms reported in a given region and time period is provided in Additional file 2