Skip to main content

Table 6 The top five most commonly reported pathogens in Middle Africa, stratified by time period

From: Non-malarial febrile illness: a systematic review of published aetiological studies and case reports from Africa, 1980–2015

  1980 to ≤ 1990 1991 to ≤ 2000 2001 to ≤ 2010 2011 to ≤ 2015
Bacteria Non-typhoidal Salmonella (n = 5) Non-typhoidal Salmonella (n = 5) Non-typhoidal Salmonella (n = 5) Staphylococcus aureus (n = 8)
Pseudomonas spp. (n = 2) Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 3) Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 5) Non-typhoidal Salmonella (n = 7)
Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 2) Rickettsia conorii (n = 3) Neisseria meningitidis (n = 4) Escherichia coli (n = 6)
Escherichia coli (n = 2) Neisseria meningitidis (n = 3) Haemophilus spp. (n = 3) Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 4)
Enterobacter spp. (n = 2) Coxiella burnetii (n = 2) Escherichia coli (n = 3) Enterobacter spp. (n = 4)
Viruses Ebola virus (n = 6) Ebola virus (n = 12) Ebola virus (n = 9) Yellow fever virus (n = 6)
Rift Valley fever virus (n = 5) Marburg virus (n = 6) Marburg virus (n = 8) Ebola virus (n = 4)
Yellow fever virus (n = 3) Hepatitis B virus (n = 2) Yellow fever virus (n = 5) Dengue virus (n = 3)
Marburg virus (n = 2) Saint-Floris virus (n = 1) West Nile virus (n = 3) Chikungunya virus (n = 2)
Lassa virus (n = 2) Rift Valley Fever virus (n-1) Dengue virus (n = 3) West Nile virus (n = 1)
Parasites Trypanosoma spp. (n = 1) Entamoeba histolytica (n = 1) Trypanosoma spp. (n = 1)
Leishmania spp. (n = 1) Mansonella perstans (n = 1)
Leishmania spp. (n = 1)
  1. No distinction has been made between case series, fever series, and seroprevalence studies. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the number of publications reporting the given microorganism. There were no data on fungal infections in Middle Africa