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Table 1 Top five most commonly reported pathogens in Southern Asia, stratified by time period

From: Non-malarial febrile illness: a systematic review of published aetiological studies and case reports from Southern Asia and South-eastern Asia, 1980–2015

  1980 to ≤ 1990 1991 to ≤ 2000 2001 to ≤ 2010 2011 to ≤ 2015
Bacteria Salmonella Typhi (n = 12) Salmonella Typhi (n = 51) Salmonella Typhi (n = 96) Escherichia coli (n = 111)
Salmonella Paratyphi A (n = 5) Staphylococcus aureus (n = 16) Escherichia coli (n = 63) Staphylococcus aureus (n = 98)
Salmonella spp. (n = 2) Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (n = 14) Staphylococcus aureus (n = 61) Salmonella Typhi (n = 77)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 2) Escherichia coli (n = 14) Leptospira spp. (n = 46) Orientia tsutsugamushi (n = 74)
Klebsiella spp. (n = 2) Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 13) Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 38) Acinetobacter spp. (n = 72)
Viruses Japanese encephalitis virus (n = 5) Dengue virus (n = 41) Dengue virus (n = 166) Dengue virus (n = 210)
Dengue virus (n = 4) Japanese encephalitis virus (n = 5) Chikungunya virus (n = 36) Chikungunya virus (n = 38)
West Nile virus (n = 3) Hepatitis B virus (n = 4) Japanese encephalitis virus (n = 16) Japanese encephalitis virus (n = 23)
CCHF virus (n = 3) West Nile virus (n = 3) CCHF virus (n = 11) CCHF virus (n = 13)
Sandfly fever Sicilian virus (n = 2) Hepatitis C virus (n = 3) Hepatitis C virus (n = 8) West Nile virus (n = 8)
Parasites Leishmania donovani (n = 3) Leishmania spp. (n = 12) Leishmania donovani (n = 25) Leishmania spp. (n = 13)
Toxoplasma spp. (n = 1) Leishmania donovani (n = 10) Leishmania spp. (n = 6) Leishmania donovani (n = 12)
Toxocara canis (n = 1) Wuchereria bancrofti (n = 3) Naegleria fowleri (n = 4) Trypanosoma lewisi (n = 2)
Acanthamoeba culbertsoni (n = 1) Naegleria spp. (n = 1) Wuchereria bancrofti (n = 3) Wuchereria bancrofti (n = 1)
Brugia malayi (n = 1) Trypanosoma evansi (n = 3) Trypanosoma evansi (n = 1)
Fungi Candida spp. (n = 1) Candida albicans (n = 5) Candida spp. (n = 10) Candida spp. (n = 29)
Candida spp. (n = 2) Cryptococcus neoformans (n = 7) Candida albicans (n = 11)
Cryptococcus spp. (n = 1) Candida albicans (n = 6) Candida tropicalis (n = 4)
Cryptococcus neoformans (n = 1) Yeast (n = 3) Candida glabrata (n = 4)
Candida tropicalis (n = 1) Cryptococcus spp. (n = 3) Cryptococcus neoformans (n = 3)
  1. CCHF Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus. The number in parentheses indicates the number of publications reporting the given microorganism