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Table 2 Top five most commonly reported pathogens in South-eastern Asia, stratified by time period

From: Non-malarial febrile illness: a systematic review of published aetiological studies and case reports from Southern Asia and South-eastern Asia, 1980–2015

  1980 to ≤ 1990 1991 to ≤ 2000 2001 to ≤ 2010 2011 to ≤ 2015
Bacteria Burkholderia pseudomallei (n = 11) Burkholderia pseudomallei (n = 16) Burkholderia pseudomallei (n = 34) Staphylococcus aureus (n = 26)
Staphylococcus aureus (n = 9) Staphylococcus aureus (n = 15) Escherichia coli (n = 32) Escherichia coli (n = 26)
Escherichia coli (n = 8) Escherichia coli (n = 14) Staphylococcus aureus (n = 29) Burkholderia pseudomallei (n = 25)
Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (n = 7) Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 13) Salmonella Typhi (n = 25) Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 18)
Orientia tsutsugamushi (n = 7) Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 10) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 23) Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 16)
Viruses Dengue virus (n = 13) Dengue virus (n = 31) Dengue virus (n = 86) Dengue virus (n = 42)
Japanese encephalitis virus (n = 3) Japanese encephalitis virus (n = 5) Chikungunya virus (n = 14) Chikungunya virus (n = 13)
Human cytomegalovirus (n = 2) Nipah virus (n = 3) Japanese encephalitis virus (n = 10) Hepatitis B virus (n = 5)
Hantavirus (n = 2) Human herpesvirus 6 (n = 3) Hepatitis C virus (n = 10) Japanese encephalitis virus (n = 4)
Hantaan virus (n = 2) Hepatitis C virus (n = 2) Hepatitis B virus (n = 8) Human herpes simplex virus (n = 4)
Parasites Naegleria fowleri (n = 1) Trichinella spp. (n = 2) Trichinella spiralis (n = 2) Trichinella spp. (n = 3)
Toxoplasma gondii (n = 1) Angiostrongylus cantonensis (n = 2) Toxoplasma gondii (n = 1)
Toxocara canis (n = 1) Trypanosoma spp. (n = 1) Leishmania siamensis (n = 1)
Cysticercus spp. (n = 1) Trypanosoma lewisi (n = 1) Leishmania martiniquensis (n = 1)
Toxoplasma spp. (n = 1) Gnathostoma spp. (n = 1)
Fungi Cryptococcus neoformans (n = 2) Cryptococcus neoformans (n = 3) Cryptococcus neoformans (n = 6) Candida spp. (n = 10)
Penicillium marneffei (n = 1) Prototheca wickerhamii (n = 1) Candida spp. (n = 4) Candida albicans (n = 6)
Cryptococcus laurentii (n = 1) Histoplasma capsulatum (n = 1) Candida tropicalis (n = 2) Cryptococcus spp. (n = 4)
Cryptococcus albidus (n = 1) Hansenula anomala (n = 1) Candida albicans (n = 2) Penicillium spp. (n = 2)
Candida spp. (n = 1) Geotrichum candidum (n = 1) Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (n = 1) Cryptococcus neoformans (n = 2)
  1. The number in parentheses indicates the number of publications reporting the given microorganism