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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants by frailty status

From: The association between frailty and severe disease among COVID-19 patients aged over 60 years in China: a prospective cohort study

  Non-frail (n = 39) Pre-frail (n = 39) Frail (n = 36) P value
Characteristics
Age, median (IQR), years 67 (64–74) 68 (63–75) 73 (66–77) 0.054
Sex, no. (%)     0.435
 Female 19 (48.72) 17 (43.59) 21 (58.33)  
 Male 20 (51.28) 22 (56.41) 15 (41.67)  
BMI, kg/m2 23.03 (21.2–25.68) 23.04 (21.46–25.65) 23.03 (22.03–24.99) 0.720
Smoking, no. (%) 5 (12.82) 8 (20.51) 6 (16.67) 0.660
Drinking, no. (%) 6 (15.36) 5 (12.82) 6 (16.67) 0.892
CCI 1 (0–2) 1 (0–2) 1 (0.5–2) 0.420
Symptoms, no. (%)
 Fever 32 (82.05) 29 (74.36) 26 (72.22) 0.569
 Myalgia 2 (5.13) 6 (15.38) 2 (5.56) 0.290
 Pharyngalgia 2 (5.26) 1 (2.56) 1 (2.78) 0.843
 Dry cough 28 (71.79) 22 (56.41) 22 (61.11) 0.354
 Expectoration 13 (33.33) 14 (35.9) 10 (27.78) 0.747
 Haemoptysis 4 (10.26) 1 (2.56) 0 (0) 0.126
 Dyspnoea 11 (28.21) 16 (41.03) 19 (52.78) 0.095
 Chest pain 1 (2.56) 2 (5.13) 1 (2.78) 1.000
 Anorexia 20 (51.28) 24 (61.54) 25 (69.44) 0.271
 Diarrhoea 6 (15.38) 2 (5.13) 4 (11.11) 0.327
 Nausea 5 (12.82) 3 (7.69) 3 (8.33) 0.787
Length of stay, median (IQR) 17 (12–30) 25 (13–34) 27 (12–37) 0.556
Onset-severe time, median (IQR) 36 (29–47) 25 (16–38) 16 (11–24) < 0.001
Laboratory findings, median (IQR)
 White blood cell count, × 109/L 5.44 (4.21–6.77) 6.04 (4.63–8.03) 6.77 (4.53–9.7) 0.024
 Lymphocyte count, × 109/L 1.21 (0.79–1.7) 1.07 (0.6–1.46) 0.72 (0.53–1.21) 0.003
 Haemoglobin, g/L 122 (113–132) 118 (105–130) 122.5 (111–137) 0.581
 Albumin, g/L 37.4 (33.2–40.8) 36 (32.4–39.6) 36.3 (33–37.8) 0.099
Characteristics
 Creatinine, μmol/L 65 (53–76) 61 (53–75) 61.5 (47–75) 0.265
 CD8+, count/μL 236 (160–365) 207 (120–305) 125 (44–329) 0.018
 D-dimer, mg/L 0.8 (0.41–1.12) 1.61 (0.65–3.93) 1.69 (0.67–4.65) 0.004
 CRP, mg/L 5.60 (0–63.5) 27.40 (0.-60.20) 55.20 (17.80–102.7) 0.008
  1. Data are median (IQR), n (%). p values were calculated by Mann-Whitney U test, χ2 test, or Fisher’s exact test, as appropriate
  2. BMI body mass index, CRP C-reactive protein