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Table 2 Study characteristics of the 24 included studies for the detection of diastolic dysfunction

From: Natriuretic peptides for the detection of diastolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction—a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, country [Ref.] Study design Study setting Marker (assay) Patient population Control population Age and sex
Patient Control
Diastolic dysfunction
 Bakowski, EU [20] Cross-sectional Secondary ANP and BNP (RIA) AMB patients with AF (N = 27) AMB patients with AF (N = 15) 58.6 ± 8.2 y; 45.2% F*  
 Bettencourt, EU [76] Case-control Tertiary BNP (RIA) AMB referrals (N = 17) Healthy controls (N = 9) 71 (11) y; 52.9% F 65 (7) y; 44.4% F
 Crowson, USA [74] Case-control Primary BNP (FEIA) Non-RA participants (N = 82) Non-RA participants (N = 1455) Non-RA: 61.3 ± 10.1 y; 55%F*  
 Goto, AS [47] Cross-sectional Secondary BNP (RIA) AMB CAD patients with AP (N = 91) AMB CAD patients with AP (N = 189) 67.4 ± 8.2 y; 18.7% F 66.3 ± 8.5 y; 30.7% F
 Grewal, CA + EU [48] Cross-sectional Primary BNP (RIA) and NT-proBNP AMB HFpEF patients (N = 72) AMB HFpEF patients (N = 109) 70 ± 10 y; 35% F 65 ± 12 y; 35% F
 Karaca, EU [77] Case-control Tertiary BNP (FEIA) AMB HTN patients (N = 30) Healthy controls (N = 20) 53 ± 9.2 y; 40% F 44 ± 4.8 y; 45% F
 Lukowicz, EU [78] Case-control Primary BNP (RIA) General population (N = 38) General population with SD (N = 16) 57 ± 10 y; 42% F 57 ± 4 y; 38% F
 Mak, NA [49] Cross-sectional Tertiary BNP (FEIA) Echo referrals (N = 16) Echo referrals (N = 84) 64 ± 13 y; 3% F*  
 Mannacio, EU [50] Cross-sectional Tertiary BNP (FEIA) Hospitalised patients (N = 25) Hospitalised patients (N = 14) 67 ± 8.6 y; 31.9% F*  
 Martos, EU [38] Cross-sectional Tertiary BNP (FEIA) AMB HTN patients (N = 33) AMB HTN patients (N = 20) 68 ± 9 y; 24% F 64 ± 10 y; 25% F
 Redfield, USA [22] Cross-sectional Primary BNP (FEIA) Random residents (N = 137) Random residents (N = 1817) Random: 62 ± 11 y; 52% F*  
 Wei, AS [51] Cross-sectional Secondary BNP (FEIA) AMB HTN patients (N = 61) AMB HTN patients (N = 74) 70 ± 10 y; 32% F 66 ± 13 y; 35% F
 Zapata, EU [52] Cross-sectional Secondary BNP (FEIA) and NT-proBNP ICU patients (N = 50) ICU patients (N = 36) Mild DD: 68 ± 11 y; 51% F 57 ± 13 y; 19% F
Moderate DD: 72 ± 5 y, 17% F
Severe DD: 69 ± 9 y; 33% F
 Zuber, EU [53] Cross-sectional Tertiary BNP (FEIA) AMB patients (N = 7) AMB patients (N = 129) 64 (range 19–88) y*  
 Ansari, EU [43] Cross-sectional Tertiary NT-proBNP AMB HFpEF patients (N = 11) AMB HFpEF patients (N = 14) 65 (range:22–97) y; 49% F*  
 Barragan, EU [44] Cross-sectional Tertiary NT-proBNP AMB DOE patients (N = 45) AMB DOE patients (N = 37) 61.4 ± 12.7 y; 87% F 43.2 ± 13.2 y; 59% F
 Barutçuoğlu, EU [45] Cross-sectional Tertiary NT-proBNP AMB HTN patients (N = 122) AMB HTN patients (N = 119) 55 ± 14 y; 61% F 53 ± 18 y; 67% F
 Corteville, USA [46] Cross-sectional Tertiary NT-proBNP AMB CHD patients (N = 78) AMB CHD patients (N = 652) < 100 pg/mL NT-proBNP: 62 ± 10 y; 19% F*  
100–500 pg/mL NT-proBNP: 68 ± 10 y; 21% F*
> 500 pg/mL NT-proBNP: 73 ± 10 y; 11% F*
 Kasner, EU [73] Case-cohort Tertiary NT-proBNP AMB HFpEF patients (N = 107) AMB patients with chest discomfort (N = 73) 53 (17) y; 40% F 51 (16) y; 43% F
 Mishra, USA [54] Cross-sectional Tertiary NT-proBNP AMB CKD patients (N = 284) AMB CKD patients (N = 2384) Quartiles of NT-proBNP  
Q1: 54 (12) y; 35% F*
Q4: 62 (10) y; 47% F*
 Mocan, EU [55] Cross-sectional Secondary NT-proBNP (ELISA) Hospitalised MetS patients (N = 47) Hospitalised MetS patients (N = 25) 59.2 ± 5.3 y; 64% F*  
 Ravassa, EU [56] Cross-sectional Primary NT-proBNP (EIA) General population (N = 186) General population (N = 541) 51.3 ± 15.4 y; 51.2% F*  
 Tekten, EU [57] Cross-sectional Tertiary NT-proBNP AMB HTN patients with DD grade 1 (N = 18) or grade 2 (N = 10) AMB HTN patients (N = 12) Grade 1/2:
52 ± 5 y; 67% F
54 ± 8 y; 60% F
51 ± 5 y; 67% F
 Tschöpe, EU [18] Cross-sectional Tertiary NT-proBNP AMB DOE patients (N = 68) AMB patients (N = 50) 51 ± 9 y; 46% F 49 ± 10 y; 44% F
  1. Age depicted in mean ± standard deviation, median (IQR) or median (minimum-maximum)
  2. EU Europe, AS Asia, CA Canada, y years, ANP atrial natriuretic peptide, BNP brain natriuretic peptide, RIA radioimmunoassay, AMB ambulatory, F female, AF atrial fibrillation, DD diastolic dysfunction, FEIA fluorescence immunoassay, SD systolic dysfunction, RA rheumatoid arthritis, NT-proBNP N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, CAD coronary artery disease, AP angina pectoris, HFpEF heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, HTN hypertension, ICU intensive care unit, DOE dyspnoeic on exertion, CHD coronary heart disease, CKD chronic kidney disease, Q quartile, MetS metabolic syndrome
  3. *Reported for total study population