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Table 4 Factors associated with bereavement outcomes of carers who were identified as next of kin by older patients

From: Associations between informal care costs, care quality, carer rewards, burden and subsequent grief: the international, access, rights and empowerment mortality follow-back study of the last 3 months of life (IARE I study)

  Subsequent grief Burden Positive aspects
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
Informal care cost ($1000)
β 0.06* 0.06* − 0.01 − 0.02 0.04* 0.03*
CIll 0.03 0.03 − 0.03 − 0.04 0.02 0.01
CIup 0.09 0.10 0.01 0.01 0.06 0.06
Age at death
β − 0.23* − 0.28* − 0.04 − 0.01 0.02 0.00
CIll − 0.35 − 0.42 − 0.13 − 0.11 − 0.06 − 0.07
CIup − 0.11 − 0.15 0.05 0.09 0.09 0.07
Cancer (= 1 if cancer)
β 0.54 0.14 − 0.73 − 0.24 1.08 1.01
CIll − 1.46 − 2.15 − 2.25 − 2.02 − 0.17 − 0.43
CIup 2.54 2.43 0.78 1.55 2.32 2.45
Formal care cost ($1000)
β 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 − 0.00 0.02
CIll − 0.03 − 0.05 − 0.01 − 0.02 − 0.02 − 0.00
CIup 0.04 0.05 0.03 0.05 0.02 0.05
Satisfaction with hospital care
β − 0.75**   − 0.76**   0.23  
CIll − 1.46   − 1.35   − 0.19  
CIup − 0.05   − 0.17   0.65  
Satisfaction with home care
β   − 0.47   − 0.84*   0.66*
CIll   − 1.24   − 1.47   0.22
CIup   0.29   − 0.22   1.10
Carer religious (= 1 if religious)
β 1.93 1.64 − 2.67** − 4.01* 1.60** 1.32
CIll − 0.71 − 1.22 − 4.78 − 6.46 0.04 − 0.35
CIup 4.58 4.50 − 0.57 − 1.55 3.15 2.98
Relationship to patient (base: wife)
 Husband
  β − 0.37 − 0.14 − 0.71 − 1.65 0.10 − 0.15
  CIll − 3.54 − 3.88 − 2.94 − 4.25 − 1.99 − 2.58
  CIup 2.80 3.61 1.53 0.96 2.19 2.27
 Daughter
  β 0.92 1.51 3.85* 3.21* 0.90 0.55
  CIll − 1.54 − 1.25 1.97 1.11 − 0.74 − 1.28
  CIup 3.38 4.27 5.74 5.30 2.54 2.38
 Son
  β − 6.42** − 3.92** 2.04 0.88 0.17 1.10
  CIll − 9.51 − 7.34 − 0.61 − 2.07 − 1.88 − 1.13
  CIup − 3.32 − 0.51 4.69 3.83 2.21 3.34
 Female relative
  β − 6.20** − 4.80 2.55 1.59 0.08 − 0.03
  CIll − 10.65 − 10.11 − 0.44 − 2.11 − 2.24 − 2.82
  CIup − 1.74 0.51 5.53 5.30 2.40 2.77
 Male relative
  β − 14.02** − 13.36* − 1.68 − 3.66 − 2.62 0.53
  CIll − 20.06 − 21.99 − 5.45 − 8.80 − 6.22 − 3.14
  CIup − 7.97 − 4.73 2.10 1.48 0.98 4.20
 Others
  β − 10.54** − 11.08* − 2.97 − 4.44** 1.24 2.01
  CIll − 16.73 − 18.17 − 6.21 − 8.78 − 1.47 − 1.08
  CIup − 4.34 − 3.98 0.28 − 0.09 3.96 5.10
Carer’s financial status (base: living comfortably)
 Doing alright
  β 1.84 0.12 0.22 0.41 0.38 0.69
  CIll − 0.29 − 2.26 − 1.31 − 1.37 − 0.93 − 0.76
  CIup 3.97 2.50 1.75 2.19 1.70 2.15
 Just about getting by
  β 3.94* 4.78* 1.38 3.15 − 0.50 − 0.64
  CIll 0.95 1.16 − 0.92 0.36 − 2.35 − 2.94
  CIup 6.94 8.39 3.68 5.94 1.35 1.67
 Finding it quite difficult
  β 7.91* 6.47* 3.06 3.72 − 2.05 − 0.74
  CIll 4.38 2.99 − 0.16 0.43 − 4.47 − 3.11
  CIup 11.44 9.95 6.28 7.01 0.37 1.63
 Finding it very difficult
  β 5.16 5.25 3.58 0.52 3.34 1.96
  CIll − 6.31 − 10.48 − 1.24 − 4.73 − 1.71 − 2.84
  CIup 16.63 20.98 8.40 5.78 8.39 6.75
 Do not know
  β 3.20 2.58 − 1.45 − 2.03 0.83 1.22
  CIll − 1.54 − 3.83 − 5.04 − 7.17 − 2.03 − 2.38
  CIup 7.95 8.99 2.14 3.12 3.69 4.83
Country (base: England)
 Ireland
  β 0.22 0.47 − 1.54 − 1.41 0.86 − 0.36
  CIll − 2.13 − 2.23 − 3.29 − 3.47 − 0.59 − 1.99
  CIup 2.58 3.17 0.22 0.65 2.30 1.26
 USA
  β − 0.97 − 3.00** 0.09 − 0.20 1.92** 0.76
  CIll − 3.51 − 5.86 − 1.82 − 2.31 0.38 − 0.88
  CIup 1.57 − 0.15 1.99 1.92 3.47 2.40
 Constant
  β 60.86* 64.11* 32.76* 32.32* 23.08* 22.67*
  CIll 50.04 51.53 24.54 23.11 16.42 15.68
  CIup 71.67 76.70 40.99 41.53 29.74 29.66
Observations 608 459 609 459 604 456
R-squared 0.26 0.27 0.11 0.15 0.07 0.07
  1. Notes: * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.1. Models 1, 3 and 5 included carer’s satisfaction with care in hospital, and models 2, 4 and 6 included carer’s satisfaction with care at home