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Table 1 Proportions of the different types of preventable medication harm and overall medication harm

From: Preventable medication harm across health care settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Outcome   Preventable medication harm Any medication harm
Number of studies Prevalence rate, % (95% CI) * I2, % Median (IQR) Prevalence rate, % (95% CI) * I2, % Median (IQR)
Overall prevalence rate 81 3 (2, 4) 99 2.9 (0.02–27.1) 9 (7, 11) 99.5 9.8 (0.24–65.4)
Healthcare system:
 - General hospital or internal medicine 29 2 (1, 2) 98.4 1.6 (1.2–2.2) 5 (4, 7) 99.0 5.1 (3.2–10.9)
 - Emergency department 12 5 (2, 12) 99.7 5.2 (2.1–12) 9.3 (4, 21) 99.8 6.2 (6.0–14)
 - ICU 6 7 (4, 12) 91.1 6.8 (3.9–11.6) 14 (8, 23) 95.6 16.4 (9.5–20.2)
 - Highly specialised care or surgical 13 6 (3, 11) 98.7 5.4 (3.0–9.7) 18 (11, 26) 99.3 22.9 (17.8–26.2)
 - Paediatric 9 1 (0, 2) 94.9 1.1 (0.1–2.1) 5 (2, 10) 99.2 5 (2.4–14.3)
 - Elderly 7 11 (7, 15) 95.9 10.7 (7.2–15.4) 23 (13, 37) 99.1 24.8 (16–31.3)
 - Primary care 4 1 (1, 2) 84.9 1.2 (1–1.9) 10 (6, 16) 99.0 9.9 (8–13.9)
 - Psychiatric 1 1 (1, 2) NA NA 10 (9, 12) NA NA
Severity of preventable harm:
 - Mild NA 39 (28, 51), n = 20 96.4 40 (21–49) 50 (44, 56), n = 47 98 46.9 (35.9–63.1)
 - Moderate NA 40 (31, 49), n = 22 93.6 36.5 (28.1–54.4) 41 (36, 47), n = 54 98 37.3 (24.7–53.3)
 - Severe/life-threatening NA 26 (15, 37), n = 28 97 19.5 (8–40) 14 (10, 19), n = 55 98 10 (6.4–18.6)
Stages of medication useβ:
 1. Prescribing 9 58 (42, 73), n = 9 94 55.8 (35.4–77.3) 64 (34, 84), n = 18 98.5 52 (36–79)
 2. Transcribing/documenting 8 3 (0, 9), n = 8 78 0.9 (0–6.3) 6 (1, 14), n = 17 89 2 (0.5–9)
 3. Dispensing 6 2 (0, 6), n = 6 47 3.8 (0.9–4.1) 8 (2, 24), n = 15 69% 5.6 (1.3–8)
 4. Administering 15 21 (11, 33), n = 15 93 20.8 (8.8–31.1) 25 (12, 40), n = 32 96.8 19 (7.6–30)
 5. Monitoring 8 47 (21, 73), n = 8 99 54.9 (25.3–76) 54 (16, 82), n = 15 100 35 (15–70)
  1. *Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation was used for the prevalence rate calculations
  2. βStages of medication use follow the using the USA’s Pharmacopeia 5 major steps