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Table 3 Univariable and multivariable meta-regression analysis of prevalence estimation for preventable medication harm

From: Preventable medication harm across health care settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis

   Univariable Multivariable
Variable No. Regression coefficient (95% CI) SE P value Regression coefficient (95% CI) SE P value
WHO region:
  - Asia/other 32 1 1
 - North America 23 0.018 (−0.014, 0.049) 0.016 0.273 0.03 (−0.02, 0.087) 0.028 0.237
 - Europe 26 0.031 (− 0.0002, 0.061) 0.016 0.051 0.011 (− 0.045, 0.066) 0.028 0.709
Drug classification:
 - Yes 67 1
 - No 14 − 0.011 (− 0.081, 0.059) 0.036 0.760 NA NA NA
Sample size*:
 - > 1,200 patients 41 1 1
 - ≤ 1,200 patients 40 0.111 (0.064, 0.159) 0.024 < 0.0001 0.038 (0.016, 0.060) 0.011 0.036
Age group:
 - Adults 63 1 1
 - Children/adolescents 18 − 0.088 (− 0.151, − 0.025) 0.032 0.0060 − 0.016 (− 0.048, 0.016) 0.016 0.319
Healthcare setting:
 - General hospital or internal medicine 29 1 1
 - Elderly 7 0.094 (0.052, 0.136) 0.021 < 0.0001 0.07 (0.023, 0.107) 0.021 0.002
 - Emergency department 12 0.042 (0.011, 0.073) 0.016 0.009 0.028 (− 0.002, 0.058) 0.015 0.062
 - Highly specialised care or surgical 13 0.062 (0.030, 0.093) 0.016 0.0001 0.052 (0.022, 0.082) 0.015 0.0007
 - ICU 6 0.052 (0.010, 0.094) 0.021 0.015 0.038 (− 0.004, 0.080) 0.021 0.073
 - Paediatric 9 − 0.008 (− 0.044, 0.028) 0.018 0.663 − 0.0001 (− 0.044, 0.043) 0.022 0.996
 - Primary care 4 − 0.009 (− 0.056, 0.039) 0.024 0.720 − 0.014 (− 0.058, 0.031) 0.023 0.547
 - Psychiatric 1 − 0.010 (− 0.100, 0.080) 0.046 0.825 − 0.006 (− 0.090, 0.079) 0.043 0.897
Assessment method:
 - Medical record review/chart review or observation 54 1 1
 - Survey, telephone, voluntary (spontaneous) report 27 − 0.026 (− 0.053, 0.0003) 0.014 0.053 − 0.021 (− 0.045, 0.004) 0.012 0.099
Standard method for preventability:
 - Yes 49 1 NA NA NA
 - No 32 − 0.014 (− 0.069, 0.040) 0.028 0.613 NA NA NA
Length of study:
 - ≤ 6 months 47 1 NA NA NA
 - > 6 months 34 −0.026 (−0.080, 0.029) 0.028 0.357 NA NA NA
Design:
 - Prospective 58 1
 - Retrospective cohort or cross-sectional 23 0.011 (− 0.019, 0.040) 0.015 0.480 NA NA NA
Risk of bias:
 - High (score < 7) 31 1 NA NA NA
 - Low (score ≥ 7) 50 0.075 (0.022, 0.128) 0.027 0.006 0.019 (− 0.004, 0.043) 0.012 0.107
Model fit indices      χ2 (6) = 44.228, P < 0.001, R2 = 37.65%
  1. SE standard error, NA not applicable
  2. *Medium number of patients = 1200