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Table 1 Comparison of characteristics of antiretroviral therapy enrollees between internal derivation, internal validation, and external validation datasets

From: Risk scores for predicting early antiretroviral therapy mortality in sub-Saharan Africa to inform who needs intensification of care: a derivation and external validation cohort study

   Internal derivation dataset (N = 2838) Internal validation dataset (N = 2715) External validation dataset (TB Fast Track, SA; N = 1077)a
Demographics   n Median or % n Median or % n Median or %
 Age, years, median (IQR)   2838 33.8 (28.6–40.9) 2715 34.0 (28.6–41.4) 1077 38.0 (32.0–44.0)
 Female, n, %   1938 68% 1779 66% 590 55%
 If female, pregnant, n, %   520 27% 551 31% 0 0%
 Marital status, n, % Married/civil union 300 11% 265 10%   
Single 2441 86% 2346 86%   
Widowed/divorced 97 3% 104 4%   
 Smoking history (ever smoked), n, % 517 18% 551 20% 238 22%
 Currently employed, n, %   1270 45% 1286 47%   
 Education, n, % None 196 7% 200 7%   
Primary 687 24% 596 22%   
Secondary 1734 61% 1641 60%   
Higher 221 8% 278 10%   
HIV/TB history
 Previous TB treatment, n, % Yes 277 10% 262 10%   
 WHO TB symptoms, n, %
  Cough Yes 495 17% 547 20% 463 43%
  Weight loss Yes 599 21% 555 20% 797 74%
  Fever Yes 259 9% 245 9% 314 29%
  Night sweats Yes 273 10% 253 9% 348 32%
 Number of WHO TB symptoms, n, % 0 1975 70% 1911 70% 230 21%
1 427 15% 349 13% 285 26%
2 202 7% 216 8% 226 21%
3 141 5% 137 5% 178 17%
4 93 3% 102 4% 158 15%
Clinical characteristics
 WHO stage III/IV, n, %   354 12% 307 11%   
 CD4 (cells/μL) Median (IQR) 2838 245 (143–315) 2715 240 (134–319) 1077 72 (36–110)
 Weight (kilograms) Median (IQR) 2838 58.8 (51.8–68.2) 2715 59.7 (52.8–69.0) 1077 57.9 (50.8–67.0)
 BMI (weight/height²) Median (IQR) 2838 21.5 (18.9–24.9) 2715 21.6 (19.1–25.0) 1077 21.3 (18.8–25.0)
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) Median (IQR) 2838 11.9 (10.4–13.2) 2715 12.0 (10.7–13.4) 1077 11.3 (9.7–13.0)
 Temperature (degrees Celsius) Median (IQR) 2838 36.2 (35.8–36.5) 2715 36.2 (35.8–36.6) 1077 36.4 (36.0–36.7)
 Respiratory rate (breaths/min) Median (IQR) 2838 19 (18–20) 2715 19 (18–20)   
 Heart rate (beats/min) Median (IQR) 2838 84 (75–94) 2715 84 (75–95)   
Mortality within 6 months
 Cumulative incidence, n, %   83 2.9% 67 2.5% 60 6%
 Time to death (days)  Median (IQR) 83 50 (25–105) 67 46 (16–87) 60 55 (30–112)
  1. Abbreviations: IQR interquartile range, TB tuberculosis, WHO World Health Organization, CD4 CD4+ T cell count, TB tuberculosis, BMI body mass index, SA South Africa
  2. aTBFT study enrollees in the intervention arm who started ART