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Table 1 Intervention target populations and effects

From: Ending malnutrition in all its forms requires scaling up proven nutrition interventions and much more: a 129-country analysis

Target populations and effects
Intervention Target population Effects Source / Effect sizes
Cash transfers (unconditional) Children below the poverty line Reduces the incidence of SAM
Reduces the incidence of MAM
RRR = 0.32 (0.16-0.61) for SAM incidence
RRR = 0.40 (0.23-0.68) for MAM incidence [Langendorf et al. 2014, PLoS Med [50], Niger study comparing super cereal plus + cash (US$52 per month) compared to super cereal plus.]
Delayed umbilical cord clamping Pregnant women (at birth, but impact is for children <1 month) Reduces anaemia RRR = 0.53 (0.40-0.70) for being anaemic [Hutton and Hassan, 2007 Jama [51]]
Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) education Home/community promotion for children 0-23 months:  
For children < 1 months Increases exclusive breastfeeding OR = 2.17 (1.84-2.56) for exclusive breastfeeding [Sinha et al. 2017 J Nutr [52] for interventions delivered in home or community settings in low- and middle-income countries]
For children < 6 months Increases exclusive breastfeeding OR = 2.48 (1.99-3.09) for exclusive breastfeeding [Sinha et al. 2017 J Nutr [52] for interventions delivered in home or community settings in low- and middle-income countries]
For children 6-23 months Increases age-appropriate (partial) breastfeeding OR = 1.82 (1.36-2.45) for age-appropriate breastfeeding; [Sinha et al. 2017 J Nutr [52]]
For children 6-23 months Promotion of appropriate complementary feeding reduces odds of stunting OR = 0.77 for stunting; [Panjwani et al. 2017 J Nutr [53] food secure population with nutrition education or counselling compared to receiving no intervention]
Immediate initiation of breastfeeding Children < 1 month Increases exclusive breastfeeding
Reduces deaths due to prematurity
OR = 1.50 (1.26-1.78) for exclusive breastfeeding in children < 1 month.
OR = 1.39 (1.11-1.74) for exclusive breastfeeding in children 1-6 months [Boundy et al. 2016, Pediatrics [54]]
RRR = 0.49 (0.29-0.82) for mortality due to prematurity [Lawn et al. 2010, I J Emi 2010 [55]]
Lipid-based nutrition supplements Children 6-23 months old who live in households below the poverty line Reduces the odds of stunting
Reduces the incidence of SAM
Reduces the incidence of MAM
Reduces anaemia
OR = 0.89 for stunting [Panjwani et al. 2017 J Nutr [53] food insecure with supplementation compared to no supplementation]
RRR = 0.915 for SAM and MAM incidence [based on Panjwani et al. 2017 J Nutr [53] food insecure with supplementation compared to no supplementation]
RRR = 0.69 (0.60-0.78) for anaemia [De-Regil et al. 2013 Cochrane review [56], assumed the same as micronutrient powders]
Oral rehydration solution (ORS) + Zinc Children 0-59 months (different quantity by age) Reduces diarrhoea mortality RRR = 0.24 (0.15-0.38) for diarrhoea mortality. Calculated as RRR = 0.31 (0.20-0.49) for ORS [Munos, et al. 2010, I J Epi [57]], with additional RRR of 0.77 due to the addition of zinc [Walker & Black 2010, I J Epi [58]]
Public provision of complementary foods Children 6-23 months old who live in households below the poverty line Reduces the odds of stunting
Reduces the incidence of SAM
Reduces the incidence of MAM
OR = 0.89 for stunting [Panjwani et al. 2017 J Nutr [53] food insecure with supplementation compared to no supplementation]
RRR = 0.915 for SAM and MAM incidence [based on Panjwani et al. 2017 J Nutr [53] food insecure with supplementation compared to no supplementation]
Treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) Children experiencing SAM Increases recovery from episode 78% recovery for wasting among children receiving intervention [Bhutta et al. 2013, Lenters et al. 2013 [10, 59]].
Note that this intervention is defined as treating children until they reach a weight-for-height of three standard deviations below the WHO Child Growth Standards median, at which point their mortality risks are significantly reduced but they are still defined as being wasted (i.e. children who are severely wasted are treated to become only moderately wasted, but wasted nonetheless).
Vitamin A supplementation Children 6-59 months Reduces diarrhoea incidence mortality RRR = 0.85 (0.82-0.87) for diarrhoea incidence [Imdad et al. 2017, Cochrane review [60]]
RRR = 0.88 (0.79-0.98) for diarrhoea-specific mortality [Imdad et al. 2017, Cochrane review [60]]
Balanced energy-protein supplementation Pregnant women below the poverty line Reduces risk of small for gestational age (SGA) birth outcomes RRR = 0.79 (0.69-0.90) for SGA birth outcomes [Ota et al. 2015, The Cochrane Library [61]]
Calcium supplementation Pregnant women Reduces maternal mortality (hypertensive disorders)
Reduces pre-term births
RRR = 0.80 (0.66-0.98) for maternal mortality [Hofmeyr et al. 2018 Cochrane review [62]]
RRR = 0.76 (0.60-0.97) for preterm birth [Hofmeyr et al. 2018 Cochrane review [62]]
Iron and folic acid supplementation Women of reproductive age (pregnant / non-pregnant) Reduces anaemia
Reduces neonatal mortality
RRR = 0.33 (0.16-0.69) for anaemia in pregnant women [Pena-Rosas et al, Cochrane Database Reviews 2015 [63]]
RRR = 0.73 (0.56-0.95) for anaemia in non-pregnant women [Fernandez-Gaxiola & De-Regil 2011, Cochrane Database Syst Rev [64]]
Intermittent preventative treatment of malaria during pregnancy Pregnant women in areas where there is malaria risk Reduces anaemia
Reduces SGA birth outcomes
RRR = 0.83 (0.74-0.93) for being anaemic [Radeva-Petrova et al. 2014, The Cochrane Library [65]]
RRR = 0.65 (0.55-0.77) for SGA birth outcomes [Eisele et al. 2010, I J Epi [66]]
Multiple micronutrient supplementation Pregnant women Reduces anaemia and risk of SGA birth outcomes RRR = 0.33 (0.16-0.69) for anaemia in pregnant women [Pena-Rosas et al, Cochrane Database Reviews 2015 [63]]
RRR = 0.92 (0.88-0.97) for SGA births [Keats et al. 2019 Cochrane Database Reviews [67]]
Iron and folic acid fortification (wheat, maize or rice) Everyone Reduces anaemia
Reduces neonatal mortality
OR = 0.976 (0.975-0.978) for being anaemic [Barkley et al. 2015, B J Nutrition [68]]
RRR = 0.87 (0.84-0.89) of neonatal mortality [prevention of neural tube defects Blencowe et al. 2010, I J Epidemiology [69]]
Iron and iodine fortification of salt Everyone Reduces anaemia
Reduces neonatal mortality
OR = 0.976 (0.975-0.978) for being anaemic [Barkley et al. 2015, B J Nutrition [68]]
Long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets Everyone in areas where there is malaria risk Reduces anaemia
Reduces SGA birth outcomes
RRR = 0.83 (0.74-0.93) for anaemia [Radeva-Petrova et al. 2014, The Cochrane Library [65]]
RRR = 0.65 (0.55-0.77) for SGA birth outcomes [Eisele et al. 2010, Int J Epi [66]]