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Table 2 Meta-regression analysis and tendency test of placebo response with associated factors in patients with diabetes mellitus

From: Age, sex, disease severity, and disease duration difference in placebo response: implications from a meta-analysis of diabetes mellitus

Variable HbA1c change Weight change
Analysis for type 1 diabetes
 Multivariate meta-regression analysis
  β 95% CI P value β 95% CI P value
  Age (year) − 0.01 − 0.02, − 0.01 < 0.01 − 0.04 − 0.09, 0.01 0.09
  Male percentage (%) 0.04 × 10−2 − 0.09 × 10−2, 0.99 × 10−2 0.93 − 0.03 − 0.06, 0.49 × 10−2 0.09
  Duration of DM (year) − 0.02 − 0.03, − 0.21 × 10−2 0.03 − 0.01 − 0.07, 0.05 0.71
  Study duration (week) 0.18 × 10−2 − 0.14 × 10−2, 0.50 0.27 − 0.26 × 10−2 − 0.01, 0.83 × 10−2 0.63
  Baseline HbA1c (%) 0.04 − 0.10, 0.18 0.57 − 0.18 − 0.68, 0.31 0.45
  Adjusted HbA1c (%)* − 0.09 − 0.19, 0.01 0.07 − 0.26 − 0.67, 0.15 0.20
  Baseline BMI (kg/m2) − 0.01 − 0.05, 0.03 0.57 0.08 − 0.07, 0.23 0.30
  Adjusted BMI (kg/m2) − 0.03 − 0.09, 0.02 0.19 − 0.01 − 0.22, 0.20 0.92
 ANOVA tendency analysis
  Linear term F value P value Linear term F value P value
  Publication year 0.03 0.28 0.60 1.89 3.00 0.09
  Analysis for type 2 diabetes
 Multivariate meta-regression analysis
  β 95% CI P value β 95% CI P value
  Age (year) 0.02 0.01, 0.03 0.01 0.02 − 0.01, 0.05 0.22
  Male percentage (%) 0.01 0.22 × 10−2, 0.01 < 0.01 0.21 × 10−2 − 0.01, 0.01 0.71
  Duration of DM (year) − 0.01 − 0.02, 0.01 0.30 0.06 0.02, 0.10 < 0.01
  Study duration (week) 0.10 × 10−3 − 0.23 × 10−2, 0.25 × 10−2 0.94 − 0.05 × 10−2 − 0.01, 0.01 0.86
  Baseline HbA1c (%) − 0.09 − 0.16, − 0.01 0.02 0.13 − 0.10, 0.35 0.28
  Adjusted HbA1c (%)* − 0.04 − 0.16, 0.08 0.52 0.10 − 0.23, 0.44 0.54
  Baseline BMI (kg/m2) − 0.02 − 0.04, − 0.26 × 10−2 0.02 − 0.03 − 0.07, 0.01 0.14
  Adjusted BMI (kg/m2) − 0.01 − 0.03, 0.01 0.41 − 0.01 − 0.06, 0.03 0.51
 ANOVA tendency analysis
  Linear term F value P value Linear term F value P value
  Publication year 0.85 3.21 0.07 6.85 3.31 0.07
  1. Font bold was used if P < 0.05 was noticed
  2. BMI body mass index, DM diabetes, mellitus
  3. *Adjusted by age, male percentage, duration of diabetes, study duration and baseline BMI
  4. Adjusted by age, male percentage, duration of diabetes, study duration and baseline HbA1c