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Table 1 Bivariate relationships between sociodemographics and childhood abuse (< 16 years)

From: Cycles of violence in England and Wales: the contribution of childhood abuse to risk of violence revictimisation in adulthood

  Childhood psychological abuse Childhood physical abuse Childhood sexual abuse Childhood witnessing domestic violence Childhood abuse count
None Single type Multiple types
All % (N) 9.0 (1971) 6.9 (1512) 6.9 (1513) 8.1 (1777) 81.4 (17,787) 10.6 (2316) 8.0 (1742)
Sex
 Male % (n) 6.8 (678) 6.9 (680) 2.8 (275) 6.0 (597) 86.0 (8517) 8.4 (829) 5.7 (563)
 Female % (n) 10.8 (1293) 7.0 (832) 10.4 (1238) 9.9 (1180) 77.7 (9270) 12.5 (1487) 9.9 (1179)
χ2   104.547 0.082 483.524 107.503 250.723
p   < 0.001 0.774 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Age (years)
 16–19 % (n) 7.8 (72) 3.6 (33) 2.1 (19) 4.1 (38) 88.0 (809) 7.9 (73) 4.0 (37)
 20–29 % (n) 9.8 (381) 6.5 (254) 4.8 (187) 8.9 (345) 82.5 (3210) 9.5 (370) 8.0 (310)
 30–39 % (n) 8.4 (450) 7.0 (374) 5.7 (304) 8.1 (437) 82.4 (4427) 10.2 (548) 7.4 (399)
 40–49 % (n) 9.8 (587) 7.4 (439) 8.2 (492) 8.9 (532) 79.9 (4764) 11.2 (667) 9.0 (534)
 50–59 % (n) 8.4 (481) 7.2 (412) 9.0 (511) 7.5 (425) 80.3 (4577) 11.5 (658) 8.1 (462)
χ2   14.355 19.393 127.254 30.856 54.025
p   < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Deprivation quintile
 1 (most deprived) % (n) 9.6 (433) 7.2 (322) 6.4 (287) 8.4 (379) 82.2 (3700) 9.3 (420) 8.4 (379)
 2 % (n) 9.4 (414) 7.8 (342) 6.0 (264) 9.2 (407) 80.9 (3562) 10.3 (454) 8.8 (386)
 3 % (n) 9.7 (419) 6.9 (297) 7.5 (321) 8.3 (355) 80.6 (3466) 11.0 (473) 8.4 (361)
 4 % (n) 8.7 (377) 6.4 (277) 7.6 (331) 7.7 (336) 81.3 (3543) 11.1 (485) 7.6 (330)
 5 (least deprived) % (n) 7.7 (328) 6.4 (274) 7.2 (310) 7.0 (300) 82.0 (3516) 11.3 (484) 6.7 (286)
χ2   16.027 9.320 13.569 16.304 27.499
p   < 0.01 0.054 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
Ethnicity
 White % (n) 9.5 (1813) 7.2 (1380) 7.3 (1395) 8.5 (1613) 80.4 (15,317) 11.2 (2129) 8.4 (1598)
 Others % (n) 5.7 (157) 4.7 (131) 4.3 (118) 5.9 (164) 88.1 (2436) 6.8 (187) 5.2 (143)
χ2   42.967 23.216 34.536 20.495 93.120
p   < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
  1. Note. Limited to adults aged 16–59 years who completed the CSEW 2015/2016 self-completion modules